Counseling on need-motivational problems
First of all, let's define what we will call the need-motivational problems.
These are, first of all, problems that arise and are manifested, for example, in the loss of a person's interest in people, in work, in what is happening around him.
The consequence of the emergence of the need-motivational problems is the decline in human activity, loss of purpose, meaning of life.
If such problems arise, the case and the people involved in it, no doubt, suffer, not only those to which this person lost interest, but also this person himself, as he ceases to receive from other people incentives that support the normal level his human existence.
Losing interest in people, a person is actually deprived of the opportunity to communicate with them and chronically underpays what is necessary for him to maintain his psychological well-being.
It is well known that people who have sufficiently wide interests and a variety of diverse needs, feel much better physically and mentally than those who do not have cognitive interests and have limited communication. This is due to the fact that a motivationally rich person is usually much more active than a motivationally poor person. Increased activity is the main sign and the main condition for a successful human existence.
How to establish that for a client who turned to a psychological consultation, the problems of a motivational and needful plan are characteristic?
This can be judged, for example, on the following particular features. First, a person who is problematic in terms of motivation almost always looks apathetic and tired. This, in turn, is most often a natural consequence of his lack of expressed interest in people and about what is happening around him. The main motivation for a person's social activity is his motives and needs.
Secondly, a person who has a weakly developed motivational sphere, as a rule, has little interest in what happens to him and other people, and almost does not react to what other people are usually quite lively and emotionally responding to . Such a person stands out prominently among the people around him precisely by his non-emotional reactions to what is happening.
Thirdly, a person who has problems of the need-motivational plan is satisfied with what he already has, even if it is clearly less than what he actually needs and to achieve what he could rightly expect by attaching small effort.
In addition to monitoring the client, you can resort to special psychological tests. They, however, unlike, for example, from character tests, are most often specific and allow us to diagnose only individual needs, motivations and interests of a person, and not all of his motivational sphere as a whole.
Therefore, before turning to psychological testing of motivation, it is desirable to collect all available information about the person being studied and, generalizing it, to formulate a very specific hypothesis about his motivational problem. Only after this it will be possible to accurately select the necessary psychological tests and, using them, to obtain the necessary and sufficiently accurate information about the motivation of the client.
Assume that the counselor psychologist has already determined that the client does have problems related to motivation. This, however, is not enough to immediately immediately begin their practical solution. It is also necessary to find out what was the real reason for the client to have this motivational problem, and to clarify what it really is.
Consider in this regard, some typical cases of a person's problems of motivational nature, as well as their possible causes and life manifestations.
Problem 1. The lack of a person, for example a child, an interest in what he naturally should have shown increased interest. Such a problem, for example, may be the unwillingness to acquire certain useful knowledge, skills, skills.
One of the possible reasons for the appearance of such a problem in a person can be that he lives only by short-term interests, which do not include the acquisition of knowledge, skills and skills for the future. In them, this person simply does not need, because they are not needed to meet his immediate needs.
Another illustrative example: a child of a certain age can be engaged in interesting games and fellowship with peers, but do not feel any need to acquire the knowledge, skills and skills that are prompted by his adult people. And as long as what adults insist on is not directly related to the actual needs of the child, one can hardly expect to increase his interest in acquiring knowledge, skills and skills.
Another possible reason for the lack of interest may be the habit of not thinking about the future at all, not getting ready for it in advance. In this case, a practical solution to the motivational problem is seen in inducing a person to think about his future, to make him realize that his personal well-being tomorrow will directly depend on what he will do today.
It is rather difficult for children to do this because their behavior is direct and impulsive, and also because they lack experience and their own minds are not so developed that they can understand the justice of the demands of adult people without outside help and, on the basis of this , start seriously preparing yourself for the future.
However, to solve this problem in childhood is quite possible, because childhood is such a time, which itself is oriented to the future. It is important only to ensure that in the child's mind his future does not seem to be something incomprehensible and abstract, but it would look like a very concrete, real one, connected with actual interests and needs.
The third possible cause of the discussed problem may be the unrelatedness of those knowledge, skills and abilities that the people around him are trying to stimulate to the assimilation of this person, with those of his needs that he currently lives in. Due to this circumstance, the knowledge and skills imposed on a person seem completely unnecessary to him and he does not have serious incentives to master them at a given time.
Problem 2. The client's lack of a sufficiently significant, serious life goal that determines the meaning of his existence.
This is a psychologically very deep motivational problem, the unresolved nature of which is fraught with far-reaching consequences for a person. The purpose of life, if it exists in a person, stimulates it to systematically engage in various activities, thereby making life quite meaningful and interesting enough for a person.
The goal of life usually becomes what corresponds to the most important life needs of a person - such, from the satisfaction of which the given person can receive the strongest, emotionally positive reinforcement.
All people from childhood, as a rule, have a certain life goal. But if it is the only one that is practically inaccessible due to a number of objective and subjective reasons, or if, having achieved this goal, a person does not receive the expected emotional satisfaction, then disappointment comes, partially or completely lost the meaning of life. The old, habitual life goal disappears, and the new one does not appear.
In order for this to happen, a person should not limit his life aspirations to a single goal. If this is a child, then from childhood it is necessary to educate and educate in such a way that it has several mutually complementary or mutually substituting life goals for each other. It is about such goals, the desire for each of which will contribute to the achievement of other goals, and the loss of one of them will not make the life of this person completely meaningless. In other words, each person should have in his life several different goals, sufficient to ensure that in any loss of life he has at least one of the important life goals.
If an adult who has a single life goal suddenly suddenly loses her, and his life as a result becomes aimless (meaningless), then with such a person it is necessary to conduct a special and sufficiently long psychotherapeutic work using, for example, the procedure logotherapy according to V. Frankl.
The essence of this procedure is that a person who has lost the previous, actual goal for him and lost as a result of this the meaning of life, to discover that in reality life is so rich and interesting that in it every person can, if desired, choose for himself not one, but several new, interesting enough, attractive life goals.
It is important, however, while ensuring that the client, having adopted a new life goal for himself and embarking on its implementation, immediately was able to get the necessary emotional positive reinforcements.
Problem 3. The essence of this problem is the lack of a person's expressed desire to achieve the set goal, when he or does not begin practical actions to implement it, or, having started such actions and having suffered the first setbacks on this way, ceases efforts directed to overcome the obstacles encountered.
This motivational problem can be based on the following possible reasons.
1. Insufficient self-confidence, low self-esteem, low level of claims.
2. An underdeveloped motive for success.
3. A too strong motive for avoiding failure.
In the first of these cases, a person does not make proper efforts to achieve the goal, and this is because he is not confident in himself or is not convinced that he will be able to achieve this goal. This negative motivational tendency is usually reinforced by low self-esteem. The person in this case underestimates his abilities and, on the basis of this, mistakenly believes that he will never succeed.
As for the understated level of claims, it usually leads to the fact that a person simply does not set himself remote and elusive goals, content only with what he has today and now.
In this case, the counselor psychologist will be able to practically help the client, having made it so that he realizes his real possibilities, increased his self-esteem and level of life's claims. In doing so, it is useful to teach the client to notice in his activity not only errors, but real achievements, especially highlighting what he did and that he managed to do well.
The insufficiently developed motive for achieving success is most easily compensated in early childhood by drawing the attention of adults to the child's achievements and the high evaluation by the adult people of the child's real successes, and most importantly his efforts and efforts.
The efforts and efforts of the child must be reinforced first and, if possible, be excluded from the practice of communicating with the child of punishment for failure, especially when the failure was accidental and when the child tried to do something good, but for some reason, it did not work out.
The insufficiently developed motive for achieving success and the overly developed motive for avoiding failures in an adult person is much more difficult to compensate than for a child, but it is still possible. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to follow the above rules in the practice of business and personal communication with this person.
In addition, it is desirable to teach a person to constantly analyze the causes of their life failures and in advance to think about possible outcomes of the undertaken actions, doing everything possible to make them positive.
Such kind of permanent work can be done by the client quite independently. He can recommend, for example, one of D. Carnegie's famous books "How to stop worrying and start living peacefully". There are many vital sonnets in connection with the case under discussion.
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