Contractual Approach, Functional-Role Approach - Business Psychology

Contract approach

A role ring (Zhukov, 2004), which includes the following key roles: Client, Customer, Sponsor, Intermediary, Contractor and Executor, can be used as a convenient model for the subsequent analysis of the model describing contract space as a form of organizing a professional activity of a psychologist. (Figure 5.9). The client is the one who has a problem of psychological (at least supposedly) character, the Customer is a person who realizes this problem and assumes responsibility for its resolution. Sponsor pays for the costs necessary to solve this problem. The mediator has information on the possibilities of solving this problem and helps to establish contact between the Customer and the Contractor. The contractor determines the choice of specific ways and means to solve the problem, and the Contractor applies these tools.

The role ring of the contract (according to Yu. M. Zhukov)

Fig. 5.9. Role contract ring (according to Yu. M. Zhukov)

With reference to the field of organizational psychology, these role positions can be disclosed, for example, as follows. Employees are employees of one of the company's divisions, for whom conflicts have become problematic, or the entire unit as a whole, where an unfavorable socio-psychological climate has developed. Customer can be the head of this unit. The administration of the enterprise finances the costs of attracting a specialist. The role of an intermediary is assumed, for example, by the department for work with personnel. The contractor in the person of some consultative firm assumes responsibility for the performance of this order, commissioning its implementation to its staff psychologists - the Executors.

A clear match between a role and a single physical (or legal) person is not common. A more typical situation is when several roles combine one person or, conversely, several persons fulfill one role (simultaneously or sequentially). Then the picture of connections is much confused. Typical here, in the opinion of Yu. M. Zhukov, are the problems of "diffusion (or losses) of the Customer" and Customer substitution & quot ;. The first problem is especially characteristic for the modern United States reality, when, as clarification of the conditions and subject of the contract, the control of the function of the current control from one instance to another takes place, with a simultaneous narrowing of their powers. For example, the CEO of the company expresses dissatisfaction with the quality of the relationship in the team and thereby initiates an order for psychological work, but shifts its implementation to its subordinates. Customer Substitution also quite typical for the consultative work of a psychologist. It is based on the everyday psychological principles of the initial diagnosis of the problem, when the actual source of the problem is one part of the organization (for example, management), but it is she who represents the case in the role of the Customer in the way that the client is the other party (the personnel of the organization or its units) and insists that it is she who requires the "cure": "We need to improve the labor discipline of workers!" "It's all about low staff loyalty!" "Our employees lack initiative, they are not ready to take responsibility."

The model of the role ring is also useful in that it allows us to distinguish (distinguish) two relatively independent acts in the whole process of concluding a contract.

1. The conclusion of a formal contract-contract between the Customer and the Contractor, i.e. establishment of an open business relationship with clearly defined mutual obligations and a clear distribution of responsibility.

2. An agreement established between the Client and the Executor (psychologist) on the basis of personal acquaintance and mutual acceptance on an emotional basis, often based on an unconscious and intuitive trust.

Establishing productive relationships between the Customer and the Contractor is of central importance, since although the main work is carried out during the interaction between the Contractor and the Customer, the responsibility is formally divided between the Customer and the Contractor. The contractor is responsible to the Contractor for the quality and timing of the work, for this there are some professional standards and criteria for assessing quality. However, the Customer, to whom the Contractor in turn, in turn, usually has a very vague idea of ​​the content of professional standards and the cost of the resources used.

As accurately noted by Yu. M. Zhukov, the interaction between the Contractor, the Client and the Customer resembles the relationship between a doctor, a sick child and his mother. The doctor better knows the disease, its symptoms, forms of leakage and ways of treatment. The mother knows her child better, in particular, how his body reacts to these or other medications. Similarly, the company manager in the role of the Customer is well aware of the characteristics of his organization and its staff, and the professional consultant is more familiar with the variants of the development of events when faced with typical problems of organizational development and has experience in resolving possible conflicts.

Functional-role approach

The functionally-role approach allows you to consider the activities of a psychologist in the organization from the point of view of its content (what the psychologist does, what professional tasks he decides) and describes the positions of the psychologist in relation directly to the client. The most established cultural samples of positions occupied by a psychologist in his work with the Client in a meaningful aspect are: Expert, Teacher and Consultant (Zhukov, 2004). The Expert's position implies the presence of some ready-made product of activity (a project has been developed, a sample of the goods has been created, a conflict has arisen, etc.) and it is necessary to somehow qualify the event, evaluate possible consequences, and forecast. A significant role in the professional training of a psychologist is played in this case by possession of psychodiagnostic methods and methods. The expert is the bearer of specialized knowledge and experience, therefore, conclusions are expected from the expert within the limits of the competence assigned to him. It should be emphasized that the authority of expert judgments of a psychologist depends on:

1) communication, seen between the object of examination and the branch of knowledge represented by the Expert;

2) the authority of the field of knowledge itself (organizational psychology);

3) formal attributes of professionalism of the Expert himself (scientific degrees, titles, position, etc.);

4) the specific trust that arises with the Customer in person to the Expert, which is still decisive in the field of modern practical psychology;

5) consistency with expert assessments of specialists from other areas in the case of a comprehensive examination.

The teacher transmits the special knowledge necessary for people to effectively organize their own activities in the near and distant future. However, the position of the Teacher in the work of the organizational psychologist does not mean simple teaching in the form of a systematized presentation of some information, for example, theories and facts. The request from the client is not always based on curiosity. The most typical is the expectation of knowledge in a special form, suitable for immediate practical use. Therefore, a significant part of the professional training of the organizational psychologist should be the possession of methods of active learning. The problem of trust on the part of the client plays a key role here, however, it is transferred mainly to the unconscious level.

The position of the Consultant, occupied by the organizational psychologist, means its inclusion in the course of the activity performed by the client at the time of the request. The transfer of special knowledge and skills to the client by the Consultant is local, point-like in the volumes and forms that are necessary at each individual stage of the activity. Schematically functional positions of the organizational psychologist can be represented as follows (Figure 5.10).

Functional positions of the organizational psychologist

Fig. 5 10. Functional positions of the organizational psychologist

thematic pictures

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