Correction-developing activity of a psychologist in education
The next important task of the psychologist of education is correctional and developmental activity. In psychology, the terms of psychological correction that develops work are used as synonyms.
By psychological correction is understood as directed psychological influence on certain psychological structures in order to ensure the full development and functioning of the individual. Psychological correction is one of the types of psychological help; activities aimed at correcting the features of psychological development that do not correspond to the system of criteria of the normative-age model, or that do not correspond to the hypothetical "optimal" the model of this development, the norm or, rather, the age reference point as an ideal variant of a child's development at one or another stage of ontogenesis. Correction is carried out with the help of special means of psychological influence.
Correction-developing activities - is the creation of psychological and educational conditions for optimal development of the child and adult as participants in the educational environment and creating conditions for correcting violations of the normative character of age (or professional) development.
Thus, normativity (norms) of age development is set by that standard, which determines the goals of the psychologist's corrective-developing activity in education. Let's consider this phenomenon in more detail.
In age-related psychology (or developmental psychology), which studies the patterns of psychological development of man in ontogeny, some facts are revealed regarding the age normative character of development.
1. There are patterns of change in the age stages of human development, generally coinciding in many cultures. Periods in a person's life can be distinguished for different reasons depending on the tasks of the researcher and his theoretical position. As GS Abramova writes, "such grounds may be some individual modalities of mental reality". Proceeding from this postulate, we can talk about the periodization of J. Piaget, or the periods allocated to him in the development of thinking; or to distinguish the characteristics of the development of the senses - such periodization is in T. Ribot; you can consider the development of the will (modality "I want") - such periodization is in LS Vygotsky. In science, a set of periodizations has been created for various activities - drawing, music, movements, schooling, etc. It is important that any periodization tries to take as a basis a different degree of generalization of the characteristics of a person's psychic reality. Above we showed the periodization of the age development of DB El'konin, based on the ideas of LS Vygotsky, it became the main in domestic psychology. In foreign psychology, periodizations of Freud, E. Erickson and J. Piaget became the most well-known periodizations of age development.
2. The standard of psychological development is set in the culture of the society in which the child develops. For example, with the same physiological structure of an organism, the child in antiquity and the child of modern parents achieve completely different levels of intellectual development.
3. The standards of psychological development are given as neoplasms in psychological development : i.e. certain qualitative and quantitative indicators of development of cognitive processes, motivational and volitional processes, development of personality and activity. Actually, all this sets the standards for development at every age. For example, for a child a year is supposed to walk and speak the first words, and before entering school at the age of seven - want to learn. Development is not reduced to quantitative changes, it is not growth, but a chain of qualitative transformations. The child's psyche is unique at every age level, it is qualitatively different from what was before and what will happen later.
4. Neoplasms, or norms of development, are not a stable education. As the culture of modern society dynamically changes, this affects the features of phenomenology and the dynamics of the child's psychological development. Therefore, the norms of development require constant refinement and improvement.
5. There are no common normative development indicators that are the same for all children. The process of development of each individual person is individual, i.e. is complex, uneven, heterochronous (when all functions and systems develop at different rates). Therefore, it is impossible to approach a particular person with the general ruler & quot ;. Often, gifted children look problematic: they do not have relationships with their classmates, they do not carry out instructional assignments of teachers, etc. However, they require a different approach and in other ways organized correctional-developing work with a psychologist, compared to a child who learns from unformed normative indicators of the development of thinking, memory, attention.
Correction-developing activity of an educational psychologist turns out to be strictly defined phenomena of "normal development" and divergent development (not normal). And this requires further analysis, terminological and meaningful concepts norm and Deviation in relation to psychological development, their ratio.
In the developmental psychology, the very concept of the norm is not fully defined, which, of course, must be correlated not only with the level of the child's psychological and social development during specific periods of his growing up, but also (in the first place) with the demands made to the child by the society, which also can not lead to any final indicators. The situation is complicated by the constant global change of the sociocultural demands placed on the child by those around him (educational programs, family conditions and conditions, children's and teenage subcultures, etc.) and the psychophysical and physiological status of the child. Discussed since the ancient times, the question of what is the "norm" or normal state has not yet been finalized.
In Latin norma means a rule, a pattern. The norm is the optimal psychophysiological (biosocial) state of the object of psychodiagnostics.
Analyzing the concept of norm and deviation in the development of the child, the famous neuropsychologist MM Semago leads two criteria.
A negative logical criterion is based on the assumption that, without clear boundaries, the norm and deviation form the opposite poles of a single continuum, i.e. represent a kind of dichotomy. The existence of this criterion is possible in two forms: the establishment of a norm through the exclusion of deviations without disclosing the content characteristics (the absence of any signs of deviations) or through establishing the degree of expression of the latent signs of deviations that every mentally healthy person has in its rudimentary form. Until these signs exceed in their expression the imposed boundaries, they correspond to the norm. In the first case, the assessment of the normal state occurs relative to the position "norm-pathology in corrective-developing purposes, in the second (for preventive purposes) - from the point of view of the threat of potentially possible deviations.
A positive logical criterion assumes the establishment of a set of characteristics describing the state of the norm of the system, i.e., in fact, the signs of mental health.
There are different criteria for determining the norm.
The statistical norm is that level of a person's psychosocial development that corresponds to the average (quantitative) indicators obtained by examining a representative group of people of the same age range, sex, culture, etc.>
The of the functional norm is based on the idea of the uniqueness of each person's path of development, and also that any deviation can be considered a deviation only in comparison with the individual development trend of each person. In other words, it is a kind of individual development norm, which is the starting point.
Adaptive criterion of norm - adaptability and adaptation of the personality in the system of social relations. The main criterion for assessing mental health, optimal functioning of the personality is the nature and extent of the individual's involvement in external biological and social systems. On the one hand, it means a level of development of natural human inclinations, which ensures survival and adaptation to the surrounding natural environment. On the other hand, we are talking about the degree of formation of his social relations and the extent to which his behavior corresponds to the basic norms and requirements that are set by the society. In this context, recovery is understood as the successful adaptation and harmonization of a person's relationship with the world around him.
The humanistic criterion of norm - was developed by representatives of Western humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, K. Rogers), as well as representatives of the United States psychological school: IV Dubrovina, AM Prikhozhan, B. S. Bratus and others. These scientists came to the following conclusions:
• Mental health is an ideal concept based on the creative principles of freedom, spirituality, and individuality. This is not the final point, but the direction in which a person moves, following his true nature;
• Indicators of a person's mental health are taking responsibility for one's life, accepting oneself, being able to live in the present, meaningfulness of individual being and ability to understand and accept others;
• Mental health disorders are only quantitative deviations from the normal process of mental development;
• The cause of mental health disorders is the incorrect distribution of stresses in the internal structure of the personality. The most significant of them is the tension between what a person is and what he thinks he should be.
The next step in the search for new meaningful criteria for assessing development from the position of "norm-abnorm" makes it necessary not to compare children with each other, but to reveal the degree of preparedness of each to fulfill a certain criterial task. The main task of these tests is to establish what the individual is able to do, and his place in the sample. "
Thus, the problem of determining the criterion of the rate of development (psychological health) and deviant development (dysontogenesis) remains open and requires further solutions.
The essence and tasks of the corrective-developing activity of a psychologist in education are, in simple terms, in bringing the indicators of psychological development in line with the age and individual norms. And, according to IV Dubrovin, in determining the goals and objectives of correction, it is necessary to proceed from an understanding of the unique role played by this particular period of age development and to set a task adequate to the development potential at this stage of ontogeny, the values of this age in an integral progressive the process of becoming a person. Realizing the potential of each age-related stage of development is the main form of preventing the occurrence of abnormalities or deficiencies in development at subsequent age levels.
But the corrective-developing activity is not limited to training the child's psychological abilities. In pedagogical psychology in the 90-ies. XX century. the favorite problem ideological issue was this: what is more correct - formation or development? That is, the position of the teacher-psychologist in correctional-developing activities should be directive, where the goals are chosen by the teacher, depending on the degree of the child's compliance rate, and his task is to actively "form"? Or, nevertheless, the educator, the education psychologist should only be concerned with providing conditions for the development of the personality, creating a "nutritious environment for cultivating the seed in a beautiful tree"?
L. S. Vygotsky believed that the main content of the corrective activity of the teacher should be in the area of the child's immediate development. Correction and developmental activity of an educational psychologist should be built as a purposeful formation of psychological neoplasms constituting an essential characteristic of the age.
The main goal of corrective-developing activities in the space of normal childhood is to contribute to the child's full psychological development. The main objective is the psychological and pedagogical correction of deviations in the child's mental development (intellectual, emotional, motivational, behavioral, volitional, motor, etc.) on the basis of creating optimal psychological and pedagogical conditions for developing the creative potential of each child's personality , preservation of his psychological health.
The purpose and objectives of correctional and development activities clearly outline the fundamental psychological and pedagogical attitude towards children: not a child to adjust, adjust under a particular education system, and this very education system to adjust in the direction that it can provide a sufficiently high level development, education and training of all children, was psychologically safe, contributed to the preservation of his psychological health.
As the basic development conditions , IV Dubrovin calls the following.
1. The maximum realization in the psychological and pedagogical accompaniment of pupils of age opportunities and reserves based on the sensitivity of this or that age period, on the zone of proximal development, etc.
2. Development in the teaching and educational process of the individual characteristics of students within each age period - interests, inclinations, self-awareness (self-esteem, sexual self-awareness, etc.), orientation, value orientations, life plans, etc.
3. The creation of a psychological climate favorable for the development of children (a safe and developing educational environment), which is determined primarily by productive communication, interaction between the child and teachers, the child and peers.
In the practice of correctional work, different models for explaining the causes of developmental difficulties are singled out.
Biological model - explains the etiology of abnormalities in development by decreasing the rate of organic maturation.
Medical model - brings problems, difficulties and deviations in development to the area of abnormal development.
The Interactionist model - emphasizes the importance of failures and disruptions in the interaction between the individual and the environment for developmental problems, and in particular, due to environmental deficiency, sensory and social deprivation of the child.
The pedagogical model - sees the causes of deviations in the phenomena of social and pedagogical neglect of the child.
Activity model - puts at the heart of the undeformed leading type of activity and other activities typical for a given age stage.
Three main areas in the field of setting correction goals.
1. Optimization of the social situation of development.
2. Development of child activities.
3. Formation of age-psychological neoplasms.
In the form of organization of correctional-developing activities, the following psychological-pedagogical methods and technologies:
- general psychocorrection (general pedagogical measures normalizing the child's social environment, normalization and regulation of the psychophysical and emotional loads of the child, work on psycho-hygiene and psycho-prevention, pedagogical ethics, medical and recreational activities, organization of special jams for swimming, increased nutrition of children);
- Private psychocorrection (a set of psychological and pedagogical influences, ie, a system of specially developed psycho-corrective measures used in the general system of educational processes.) Game, musical, dramatherapy)
- a special psychocorrection (a set of techniques, measures, methods, methods of working with a specific child or a group of children to solve psychological problems).
The technology of corrective-developing activity is a complex system of corrective-developing influence, which contains three interrelated and interdependent components:
- Methodological (ideas, target characteristics, tasks, initial theoretical positions are formulated-psychological, pedagogical, philosophical, legal, economic, etc.);
- meaningful (stages of work, tasks of each stage and content of the stage);
- technological (methods, forms, means of use).
Correction-developing activities can take place in the form of individual and group.
The following conditions are necessary for the individual correctional-developing activity of a psychologist of education:
is the voluntary consent of the client (ie the child or adult - the teacher, the parent, the employee of the educational institution) to receive such assistance;
- the client's trust in the psychologist;
- the internal motivation of the client in relation to working with one's own experiences, psychological problems (difficulties)
- the client's activity and his creative-research attitude to his own problems;
- the client's right to accept or not to receive assistance;
- the client's right to make decisions about his own life.
All these conditions are not always feasible when working with children of preschool and primary school age, because they do not have a sufficiently developed personal reflection in order to be aware of their problems and want to cope with them. Moreover, often to individual sessions with a psychologist refer children and adolescents at the request of parents, teachers. An unmotivated client is one of the most common cases in the practice of a psychologist in education.
Hence, a significant part of the time of the correction and development work of the psychologist of education is devoted to establishing a relationship of trust and development of motivation for joint work.
Specificity of the group correctional-developing activity of the education psychologist is to work with the group as the subject of interaction: the purposeful use of group dynamics, i.e. the entire set of relationships and interactions that arise between the group members, including the psychologist, for corrective purposes. Thus, in the group, in addition to the psychologist, the subject of the corrective-developing influence is the whole system of group relations.
( See Task 18 to Chapter 2.)
A psychological or psychotherapeutic group is an artificially created small group united by the goals of interpersonal research, personal learning, self-disclosure. This interaction is "here and now", in which participants study the processes of interpersonal interaction occurring with them at a given time and place.
Psychological groups can be centered primarily on the leader (group of skills training) or on its members (a group of meetings). The composition of the group is determined by its type (psychodramatic, group of meetings, group of skills, etc.), as well as the form and content of the correctional-developing work. Contraindication for group corrective-developing work is low intelligence and borderline personality disorders.
Borderline condition (personality disorder) - the designation of weak forms of neuropsychic disorders located near the conditional border between mental health and severe pathology. Border states are distinguished in the narrow sense - these are psychogenies (reactive states, neuroses), mental disorders in extreme conditions of activity. Border states in a broad, therapeutic and practical sense are the slow-moving forms of schizophrenia, mild forms of psychosis, psychosomatic disorders, chronic alcoholism (without pronounced personality degradation), drug addiction, food addictions (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa), sexual disorders (transsexualism, fetishism, pedophilia), etc.
The main content element of the technology of individual and group correctional-developing activity of the psychologist in education are methods.
Among the common methods, we can distinguish the following.
1. Conversation, phenomenological interview.
2. Group discussion.
3. Game methods.
4. Methods for changing the emotional-volitional state of group members.
5. Methods of development of cognitive processes.
6. Methods aimed at the development of social perception.
7. Methods of bodily-oriented psychotherapy.
8. Methods of working with images, methods of working with altered states of consciousness (including suggestive and meditative techniques).
Basic technology, which combines all of the above methods, is a technology of social and psychological training.Group social and psychological training is a set of active methods of practical psychology ( correctional-developing activities), which are used to promote the full psychological development of the child (as well as an adult client psychologist education).
The specific features of the training are (according to IV Bachkov):
- compliance with group work rules and rules ;
- aiming at psychological help to the group members in self-development, with this help comes not only (and sometimes not so much) from the facilitator, but from the participants themselves
- the presence of a more or less constant group (usually from 7 to 15 people), periodically meeting for meetings or working continuously for two to five days (the so-called marathon groups);
- a certain spatial organization (most often - work in a comfortable isolated room, the participants spend most of the time in a circle);
- emphasis on the relationship between the group members who develop and analyze in the situation "here and now";
- use of active methods of group work;
- Objectivization of subjective feelings and emotions of group members relative to each other and occurring in the group, verbalized reflection;
- the atmosphere of relaxedness and freedom of communication between participants, the climate of psychological security.
Trainings, being a form of practical psychological work, always reflect with their content a certain paradigm of the direction, the views of which are followed by the psychologist conducting training sessions. There are several such paradigms.
1. Training as a training, as a result of which participants develop and develop skills and skills of effective behavior. Example: sales training in business.
2. Training of competence development, which aims, first of all, to create the conditions for the development of competence as the ability to solve life and professional tasks productively. Such trainings form a willingness to solve problems within the framework of developed competence (for example, the ability to engage in conversation with strangers), the experience of a productive solution of difficult situations is transmitted and conditions are created for the development of personal qualities important for solving the problem (benevolence, positive self-relation). >
3. Training as a method of personality development participants and their independent search for ways to solve their own psychological problems. In such trainings, people are taking part, striving for self-development, improving the quality of their own lives.
Classification of the main methods used by the teacher-psychologist
experimental methods of age
and social psychology.
Methods of psychological counseling:empathic listening, interpretation, empty chair method and role playing of dialogue of subpersonalities, mayevtic,
Relaxation and Ericksonian hypnosis, ^ tariffing.
game correction, igroterapiya, traisovye methods, reading and discussion of artistic text, fairy tales, parables, diagnostic training experiment,
Socio-psychological training, behavior training
Methods of social education:
method of motivation and initiation to action,
the method of reproduction, the method of consolidation and enrichment, the method of assistance and co-creation.
Methods of socio-pedagogical influence: on consciousness, on feelings, on behavior.
Methods of organizing social and pedagogical interaction:
methods of value orientation,
methods of organizing activities,
Methods of pedagogical diagnostics: pedagogical observation, natural experiment.
verbal (story, explanation, conversation, discussion, lecture);
visual (illustration, demonstration, work with the textbook);
practical (exercises, laboratory and practical work, didactic games, creative tasks and problem situations).
Methods of education: a positive example, persuasion, training,
encouragement and punishment,
organization of success, self-education
4. Training as a form of psychotherapy. This model of training is used in the direction of psychotherapy, in which the group format is mandatory, for example in psychodrama.
The methodological competence of a psychologist in education turns out to be one of the basic ones in professional training of a specialist (See Table 2.2). As follows from the listed methods of corrective-developing activity, the psychologist of education requires not only knowledge of psychological theories and technologies, but also the ability to methodically study and describe them. In other words, a psychologist should be able to make programs, work plans and plans-outlines of corrective-developing activities. To be able to formulate goals, tasks; determine the methods of work, clearly formulate instructions for the exercises and questions after - to bring the children to the relevant conclusions, etc. Neglect of methodological competence leads, as a result, to a decrease in the professional level, the inability to control the corrective process, the impossibility of sharing experience with colleagues.
Medical and non-medical psychotherapy. Corrective-developmental activity realizes the goals, the methodology of the directions of psychotherapy. Hence the question arises: than psychotherapy differs from the corrective-developing activity ?
The question of dividing the two spheres of psychological assistance - psychological correction and psychotherapy - is quite debatable until now. Both in psychocorrection and in psychotherapy, there are similar requirements to the personality of the specialist who provides assistance; to the level of his professional training, qualifications and professional skills; the same procedures and methods are used; assistance is provided as a result of a specific interaction between the client and the specialist. The opinion is expressed that psychocorrection is more suitable for describing the activity of an education psychologist, and psychotherapy can be both medical and non-medical.
In the medical model of psychotherapy, the psychotherapist must necessarily have a medical education, most often a psychiatric one, and he can prescribe medications to normalize the physiological state of the patient, his nervous system. In the non-medical model of psychotherapy, the therapist is not required to have a medical education and is not entitled to prescribe medications. According to the existing in the professional psychological community, to medical therapists it makes sense to direct people in borderline and psychotic states - those clients who may need psychiatric help or help from a clinical psychologist. Non-medical psychotherapy can only be practiced by a specialist with a psychological education (without clinical specialization), and his clients do not require tracking of psychiatric status.
Thus, it is possible to distinguish specific features of the corrective-developing process that distinguish it from psychotherapy:
- The correction focuses on the healthy personality of people who have psychological difficulties, problems, neurotic complaints in their daily lives, as well as people who feel good, but who want to change their lives or set themselves the goal of personal development;
- correction focuses on the healthy side of the person regardless of the degree of violation. Correction-developmental effects are aimed at changing the behavior and development of the client's personality;
- correction in determining goals comes from the age-normative model, psychotherapy focuses only on the client's request;
- Correction usually focuses on medium-term assistance (as opposed to short-term - up to 15 meetings - counseling and long-term - up to several years - help with psychotherapy);
- correction works with clients, psychotherapy is possible both with clients and with patients.
The client is a normal, physically and mentally healthy person who has problems of a psychological or behavioral nature. He is not able to independently resolve them and therefore needs outside help. As clients of corrective-developmental influence may act as a person, family (couple) or group. The patient - is a person in need of medical, including psychiatric, care.
The main areas of psychotherapy in working with children and adolescents coincide with the main substantive areas of correctional and developmental activity.
These directions were described in paragraph 2.1. Let's call them again.
1. Psychodynamic approach in psychotherapy of children and adolescents: psychoanalysis, symbololodrama (catatimno-imaginative psychotherapy), Jungian analysis, transactional analysis.
2. Art therapy of children and adolescents: isotherapy, fairy-tale therapy, sand therapy, photo therapy, music therapy, apimalotherapy.
3. Cognitive-behavioral approach in the psychotherapy of children and adolescents.
4. The existential-humanistic approach in the psychotherapy of children and adolescents: client-centered psychotherapy, positive psychotherapy, provocative psychotherapy, existential psychotherapy (beginning with adolescence).
5. Psychodrama of children and adolescents.
6. Genttalt therapy.
7. Understanding psychotherapy.
8. Family systemic psychotherapy.
9. Narrative psychotherapy.
10. Body-oriented psychotherapy. Dance-motor psychotherapy.
11. Ericksonian hypnosis.
In addition to these areas, there are still some anthropological practices (see above) in art that somehow intersect with the indicated directions of psychotherapeutic work.
Categories of children with difficulties and developmental disorders and the specificity of corrective-developing activities with them. The following categories (according to BD Karvasarskii) are the main categories of children with developmental disorders in defectology:
1) children with severe and persistent impairment of auditory function (deaf, hard of hearing, late-decayed);
2) children with deep visual impairment (blind, visually impaired);
3) children with intellectual disabilities based on organic damage to the central nervous system (mentally retarded);
4) children with severe speech disorders (logopathies);
5) children with complex disorders of psychophysical development (deaf-blind, blind, mentally retarded, deaf mentally retarded);
6) children with musculoskeletal disorders;
7) children with severe psychopathic forms of behavior.
The most typical difficulties in children with normative development:
- inconsistency of the level of mental (mental) development of the child with the age norm, this applies both to the delay of mental development and to the outstripping rate of development - giftedness
- Unwillingness to attend school; poor progress; low cognitive and educational motivation;
- negative tendencies of personal development; communication problems;
- disorganization of behavior, low level of arbitrary regulation;
- emotional behavior disorders;
- disadaptation in kindergarten, school, family.
For a deeper understanding of the mental states of children (or adults) with developmental peculiarities, a psychologist must have high empathic abilities and readiness to identify himself with a person with limited abilities in conditions of his life and world perception.
Such a task is professionally significant for a psychologist working in the correctional and developing direction. As an example of the complexity of solving such a problem, let us cite the text of a young girl who met a blind young man and tried to understand how he perceives the world around him (see Elena Uskova's story "My communication with a blind musician" in Appendix 16).
(See assignment 19 to chapter 2.)
The requirements for professional and personal competence of a psychologist engaged in correctional-developing activities can be divided into three groups: theoretical, practical and personal.
Theoretical component: knowledge of the general laws of mental development in ontogeny; knowledge of the periodization of mental development; knowledge of the problem of the relationship between learning and development; representation of the basic theories, models and types of personality; knowledge of the socio-psychological characteristics of the group; knowledge of the conditions that provide personal growth and creative development. In his professional work, an education psychologist can remain committed to only one of a kind of psychotherapeutic theory, can adhere to eclecticism - use different approaches, or focus on a problem-oriented approach.
Adherence to one approach is manifested in the fact that the psychologist deals with corrective-developing activities within the framework of one theoretical methodology (for example, psychoanalysis, fairy-tale therapy or client-centered psychotherapy). This allows you to penetrate deeper into the subject, gain an exhaustive knowledge of theory and practice, but at the same time imposes certain limitations related to the capabilities of one approach, one method. More often than not, these constraints prompt experts to conduct research, experimental work to refine the theory and methodology of corrective activity.
Eclecticism leads to the fact that a specialist knows something selectively from various theories and practices. His work can be effective (especially in the initial stages), but soon he will face shortcomings of surface preparation, with a lack of basic, core, basic representations. It turns out that it is impossible to put forward hypotheses about the reasons for the deviation in development and the ways of its correction in several theories. It all comes down to a single leading concept for interpretation. And eclecticism is the result of an insufficiently high level of professional reflection.
A problem-oriented approach is a professional approach in which a psychologist specializes in one problem area. For example, in the problem of child-parent relations or school disadaptation. He studies everything that is known in this field, and then, having acquired a professional foundation and professional experience, begins to work within the boundaries of one methodology, involving other methods - including them within the framework of his theory or building a theory. Such a professional can use conceptual representations of the basic or his theory (modifications of the basic theory), and the techniques and practical approaches of others.
Practical component: Possession of specific methods and techniques of corrective-developing work.
Personal readiness: Psychological elaboration of the psychologist's own problems in those areas that he suggests to adjust from the client. A psychologist who independently carries out correctional and developing activities must have basic fundamental training in the field of psychology and special training in the field of specific methods of corrective action.
Personal unpreparedness can manifest itself in the form of psychological barriers to the requirements of corrective communication. If the psychologist in childhood was severely punished physically and he survived the trauma of personal humiliation, then the correction requirement - not to humiliate the client (the child), who is also punished physically and who is depressed - such a psychologist can be ignored. Adult can consider this requirement optional: I was beaten as a child, and I grew up a worthy person. As a result, an emotional resonance arises between the psychologist and the client. Similar emotional states in the psychologist and the client (for example, stress reaction in similar situations) can strengthen each other and interfere with the correctional process.
The elaboration of personal problems allows an adult to choose an adequate position in relation to the child. Personality readiness to carry out correction suggests that the adult needs to go not from himself, but from the child and his problems.
In the correctional-developing activity of a psychologist in education, it is necessary to separately investigate the role of the social environment of the client-a child or a teenager. In childhood, the conditions of development are determined precisely by the social environment. Changes in the child's behavior that have not received support in the immediate social environment lead to an attenuation effect. It is these conditions and factors that affect the child in the family, in the system of child-parent relations, in school with teachers, in the community of peers, that lead to the emergence or strengthening of the child's psychological difficulties.
Hence the conclusion: the correction-developmental impact must be complex, it must involve both the child and his parents, as well as other significant adults or peers.
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