Tips for developing mnemonic abilities
Mnemonic abilities are associated with the work of human memory and usually manifest in such private skills as recognition, memorization, preservation, remembering and forgetting. In addition, there are different types of memory, and there are more than one and a half dozen of them. These include the following types of memory: short-term, operational, long-term, involuntary, arbitrary, direct, mediated, mechanical, logical and memory types associated with the work of various senses.
The presence of a large number of types of memory and mnemonic processes in a person requires mandatory conduct of accurate psychodiagnostics of the memory state of the client before he is given specific recommendations for improving memory. In addition, it is advisable to consult on the subject of memory in the light of the following provisions.
1. If the client complains about memory problems, then it is unlikely that this applies to all memory types without exception.
2. If a customer has received a complaint about memory, this does not always indicate that he really has problems. Most likely, the situation is such that, in general, the client's memory is not bad, in some cases of life for reasons not directly related to memory as such, it experiences certain difficulties in remembering or remembering the material.
It is possible that the problems that the client complains about concern only certain types and processes of its memory. For example, one customer may have problems with memorization, the other with preservation, the third with the reproduction of material. One person may have weak mechanical memory, another - a logical memory, the third - mediated. One person can have a good short-term, but a bad long-term memory, and so on.
Therefore, the first task that a counselor psychologist should solve is to carefully put out the client's complaints and put an accurate diagnosis of his memory. Not every client who complains about his memory can accurately realize and correctly describe her problems. Not every psychologist-consultant is far from always able to deliver an accurate diagnosis of client's memory only according to his story. Here in most cases it is impossible to do without carrying out special psychodiagnostics of the client's memory, in particular without those tests that were described earlier.
3. Not all types of memory in humans can be equally successfully improved. Some types of memory-for example, involuntary and immediate memory-usually develop slowly enough and mostly only in childhood, as the organism matures (in particular, the child's brain), reaching the peak of its development by fifteen to sixteen years. Further, as a rule, they do not improve substantially, unless, of course, a person consciously engages in their development. And in this case the development of memory is usually along other lines: arbitrary and indirect. Other types of memory, such as, for example, logical memory, can develop and improve throughout the life of a person.
In addition, some people can successfully develop one type of memory, and others - others. Therefore, when offering practical recommendations to the client for improving his mnemonic abilities, it is first necessary to determine exactly which types of memory are most needed for him in life, and second, to establish how it is easiest for a given client to remember or recall a material, and with this offer him practical advice on improving his memory.
4. Almost all people with age, there are natural and regular changes in memory, which are reduced mainly to the following. Starting from twenty-five to thirty years, most people gradually deteriorate the types of memory that were given since birth. This is a direct, involuntary and mechanical memory. Their gradual deterioration with the age of a person occurs because, firstly, these types of memory depend on the state of the organism (the younger it is, the better the memory), and secondly, they are unproductive and gradually replaced with age by more productive types of memory: arbitrary, mediated and logical. The latter types of memory require, incidentally, much lower energy costs than its first species.
From this, in particular, it follows that clients older than 25 - 30 should be encouraged to develop mostly arbitrary, logical and indirect memory.
5. With age, the most preserved in a person are basically those types of his memory, to the use of which he most often turns in his life. The main types of memory are those that are relatively rare.
Therefore, putting a psychological diagnosis of client's memory, one should not make a mistake and take into account his life experience. Speech in this case is about the following. If the client in his life constantly turns to some kind of memory, its process or methods of memorization and nevertheless systematically experiences certain difficulties in recalling the required material, it means that the client has practically exhausted the reserves of improving this type of memory. The ways to improve its memory in this case should be looked for in other types of memory, which it does not use and which is rarely accessed.
6. Memory, like human intelligence, can not be developed unilaterally. To ensure that the memory of a person is constantly maintained at a high level, it is necessary, first, to develop all types of memory in a complex way, and secondly, to constantly exercise and load them. Applying this rule practically in the process of psychological counseling, one should, however, bear in mind what in this connection has already been said above about the human intellect, namely: to develop and exercise in a complex way, first of all, the types of memory to which a person must constantly apply in his life, in particular in professional activities.
7. The memory of a person in its development and functioning is closely related to his intellect and can not be improved without the parallel mental development of the person. First of all, this, of course, concerns logical and indirect memory.
Each of the types and processes of memory requires, in addition, a special approach to its improvement. Next, we briefly formulate general recommendations for the development of individual types of memory.
8. The process of recognition as a mnemonic process is closely associated with the development of a person's perception, as well as with the improvement of the quality of those intellectual actions and operations that a person performs in constructing a perceptual image that correctly reflects reality.
Therefore, recognition should be practically developed through the perfection of perception, in particular by means of special exercises in comparison and distinguishing very similar objects.
Children can be recommended for this exercise to identify similarities and differences in visually perceived objects, such as drawings. As for adults, for whom recognition is usually associated with the performance of any professional activity, it is best for them to improve the corresponding mnemic process through the kinds of activities that the person performs at their work.
9. Memorization as a process of memory has several sides. First, it is the organization of the material in order to better memorize it. Secondly, it is self-remembering, that is, the performance of appropriate mnemonic actions. Thirdly, it is the optimal distribution of mnemonic actions in time.
Therefore, the client, in connection with his problems regarding memorization, we can advise the following. The client should try to develop a habit of reflecting on the stored material before trying to remember it. Such reflections should be aimed at elucidating the characteristics of the material to be memorized, in particular, what it differs from the known material, or what it is, on the contrary, similar to the already known material.
Among the techniques that contribute to a good and quick memorization, one can include the definition of the internal structure of the memorized material and the awareness of what images, thoughts and feelings it generates. All this is done by the client, asking himself questions about the memorized material and himself answering them. It is enough only to deliver and consistently answer these questions so that the relevant material is remembered.
Sometimes it is also desirable to mechanically repeat the material several times, so that it is better remembered. In general, it should be remembered that the process of remembering, especially in an adult, is nothing more than a system of useful life habits. Having worked them out once and following them constantly, you can permanently or permanently rid yourself of the problems associated with remembering.
These problems, in turn, arise from the lack of such habits of life. In childhood, when there is still strong involuntary, direct and mechanical memory, significant memory problems, as a rule, do not appear. However, in most adults with age, they inevitably arise, especially after sixty years, and sometimes even earlier.
10. The mechanism for storing the stored material in memory is what science least of all knows about. Therefore, it is not possible to influence this process purposefully. Nevertheless, the client here can also do something useful for himself.
In this regard, the counseling psychologist will have to remind the client that the more reasonably the memorization process is organized, the more emphasis should be placed on the comprehension of the memorized material and the less the place should be occupied by a purely mechanical repetition.
The main thing that you need to take care of in advance, memorizing some material, is to find (develop, assimilate) some sufficiently effective technique with which you can easily recall this material at the right time.
Here, in particular, the following tips may be helpful.
First, it is important to bring all the memorized material into a coherent system and do it in such a way that each part of the material is logically related to its other parts, and the more links - associations within the stored material, the better.
Secondly, it is necessary to make sure that one or several of the key links of this material at any time can easily be recalled. These links are usually the initial or final links in the chain of memory material.
Thirdly, it is necessary to ensure the conditions under which what will help remember all the memorized material would be in sight and in the client's attention at the right time.
11. Reproduction or recall of material is perhaps the most complex mnemonic process. A person can sometimes remember and even retain the necessary material in his memory, but at the same time he will not be able to reproduce it easily and accurately at the appropriate moment of time, due to the weakness of the recall process.
This process, in turn, depends on many factors, among which one can call the quality of remembering the material. It, however, is not the only reason for poor recall. The reproduction of the material is also affected by the natural process of forgetting it, the physical and psychological state of the person at the time of recall and much more. Forgetting usually takes its course, and if a person does not repeat the material from time to time, then in his memory there is not more than twenty percent of the amount of material that he originally memorized. Therefore, in order to facilitate the process of remembering, it is necessary to repeat the memorized material from time to time.
It is also known that a person's poor physical condition and strong emotional excitement adversely affect his memory, especially the process of remembering. Therefore, one should not worry too much about the fact that at one time or another, associated with a person's not quite favorable physical or mental well-being, something will not be remembered immediately, not completely and with difficulty. This is not a lack of memory as such, but a consequence of a person's temporary psychophysical state.
In order to remember something well, a person, first of all, needs to calm down and relax.
12. A lot of problems arise in humans due to the limited volume of its short-term memory. Although on average it is equal to seven in adults, but the difference is almost twofold between the lower and upper normal boundaries (five and nine units) is large enough to generate significant individual differences in the amount of memory between people.
Particular difficulty in remembering is usually experienced by people whose short-term memory is at the lower limit of the specified normal range. Such people, as a rule, hardly can immediately remember material with a volume of more than seven units or they do it very slowly.
At the same time, for those people, whose volume of short-term memory is at the upper limit of a given interval of nine units, such difficulties arise only when they have to memorize a number of information units of ten or more elements.>
At the same time, people usually do not experience special difficulties when the number of units of information in the series they remember is equal to the average volume of their short-term memory and does not exceed it. This means that a person whose volume of short-term memory is five should recommend to memorize a large volume of material in small portions, which include no more than five units, and a person whose volume of short-term memory is seven units - in portions of no more than seven units in each .
It should also be remembered that the volume of short-term human memory is, on the whole, a little exerciseable and slightly variable quantity, therefore, to the volume of individual short-term memory in real life, one simply has to be able to adapt.However, when dealing with pre-school children, it should also be remembered that their short-term memory is usually much lower than that of adults, and is approximately equal to the age of the child in years. From the point of view of practical recommendations for improving the memory of children, this means that preschoolers need to give the material for memorization even smaller portions than for adults. And only with the beginning of schooling can you gradually move to the use of voluminous mnemonic norms, characteristic for adults.
13. The quality of the operative memory, on which the ability of a person for a long period of time depends, from several tens of minutes to several days, to retain a large amount of information, recall them and use them quickly, is determined by many factors.
First of all, we note that the human's operative memory, unlike its short-term memory, is exerciseable and largely depends on the personal, professional life experience of a person. The amount and power of RAM can be increased to a very large size, but it requires constant reinforcement and support to maintain its quality at a high level.
Operative memory can be improved, for example, by solving mental and practical, vital tasks, in which there are many conditions and which contain a long-time distributed a considerable number of steps in the search for a solution. Gradually increasing the amount of information that you need to keep in memory while solving a problem, increasing the time of solving the problem, you can thereby improve the memory.
14 . A person is not directly able to control what is actually in his long-term memory, as well as the processes of storing information, occurring at a subconscious level. However, he can regulate his long-term memory through consciously controlled by himself processes of memorizing and reproducing material.
It is known, for example, that a well-organized memorization has a positive effect on the quality of long-term memory. Repetition and systematic recall of the material also improves a person's long-term memory. This can be recommended for a client who complains to the counselor psychologist that the material he memorizes is quickly forgotten.
15. The arbitrary memory of a person is essentially dependent on one's will and motivation. Therefore, the ways of practical improvement of this type of memory consist, on the one hand, in increasing the interest of a person to a memorized material, and on the other hand, in the improvement of his personal, in particular characterological, qualities.
16. The main opportunities for improving the memory of a person relate to his mediated memory. This is due to the fact that the lack of reliable means of remembering a person significantly worsens his memory, especially with age. The presence of effective means of remembering and remembering, on the contrary, improves the memory of a person, regardless of his age.
Moreover, it is reliably established that the older a person becomes, the greater success he can achieve in improving memory based on the rational use of various mnemotechnical tools.
In this regard, in order to provide effective assistance to the client, the counselor psychologist must himself master many different mnemotechnical means, know their positive and negative sides, be able to use them in practice.
However, not every mnemotechnical device is good in itself and suitable for any person. The success of its application largely depends on the individual characteristics of the client and on the conditions of his life. Therefore, when offering a client some mnemotechnical tools for use, it is necessary, at the same time, to explain to him the following.
First, it is advisable to apply different mnemotechnical tools in practice, choosing from them those which are easiest to use at any time and which can give the best results.
Secondly, you should try to somehow adapt these funds to yourself.
Third, it is necessary to bring the use of these tools to the level of automatism, turning them into vital habits.
17. Visual, auditory and motor memory are the main types of memory in a person, and they have the greatest workload in their life. In their importance to humans, they follow one another in the sequence indicated above.
Each of these types of memory in itself is improved and maintained at the proper level due to the acquisition of life experience by a person.
However, it is necessary to take into account the fact of interaction, mutual influence of these three types of memory on each other. Their mutual influence is manifested, in particular, in that the improvement or deterioration of one of the named types of memory always and almost inevitably affects the state and functioning of other types of memory.
This is a very important practical conclusion for improving memory in general: all of its main types must be maintained and developed in humans simultaneously.
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