Creativity as a personality property
In a broad sense, creativity is denoted by the term creativity (from the Latin creatio - creation, creation). This ability manifests itself in almost all the mental processes of a person, in his feelings and communication. Creativity can characterize the personality as a whole, its individual parts, products of activity or the process of their creation. All the main achievements of people, transforming the world, is the result of their creativity, the realization of creative potential. In perception, creativity is manifested as impartiality, the ability to get rid of a fixed setting, to react actively to immediate impressions delivered by the senses; in memory - as a wealth of associations and the ability to actualize the hidden properties of objects; in thinking - as the ability to unconventional analysis, overcoming stereotypes, establishing various connections between objects and their properties, to generalizing phenomena that are not connected by an obvious link; in imagination - as non-standard of created images. In feelings, creativity manifests itself in the subtlety and wide range of experiences, in the high level of development of intellectual emotions that arise in a person in the processes of thinking and imagining. In communication, creativity contributes to overcoming barriers and stereotypes that impede adequate social perception, the ability to understand the inner world and individuality of a person; constructive resolution of conflicts, finding optimal ways and ways of interaction.
The study of biographies and life activities of people who have shown abilities for various types of creative activity that achieved significant success in creativity, revealed a large number of features that characterize their personality and behavior. They are characterized by such features as initiative, independence, independence, self-confidence, originality. High level of cognitive activity, curiosity, child's ability to be surprised. Often, creative people are prone to dreaminess, fantasy, the generation of "crazy" ideas, stubbornness of the opinions of other people. They hardly perceive the obvious truths, they are not afraid of the condemnation and ridicule of others. Due to such features, the creative person often has problems associated with adaptation in social groups.
The analysis of the multifaceted manifestations of creativity in the most diverse spheres and sides of the personality makes it possible to determine its essence, which consists in a pronounced individuality of a person, in a departure from stereotypical forms of behavior, desire and willingness to always follow one's own path. The totality of mental properties and characteristics characteristic of a creative personality is an object of study through special tests of creativity.
Observations and special studies show that people with a high creativity rate are rare. The vast majority of adults are realists, not dreamers and not creators of new ideas. They have a lot of knowledge, have a high level of development of abstract-logical thinking, and rarely one of them rises above the average level of development of creativity. The links that they establish between different objects are for the most part obvious and stereotyped. Each object they perceive and interact with it, using a limited number of properties - useful, familiar, equally important for many people.
A completely different attitude to the world around us is observed in children. This is manifested, for example, in the way they use objects that have socially fixed ways of using. Children with equal willingness use a spoon and in its direct purpose, and as a stick, and as a musical instrument, and as a toy. Often extraneous ways of using objects are more preferable for them, since they correspond more to the natural tendency to manipulate and experiment with objects. Children see the world as multivariate. In fact, it is so, but adults perceive it in accordance with the categorical affiliation of objects and past experience. The ability for creativity, which makes it possible to use objects in a new, unusual quality, to represent oneself in all imaginable roles, indulge in an unrestrained fantasy, is inherent in all children. However, with age, many of them lose this ability, their creative potential is not fully realized. Lifestyle and the main types of activities of preschool children: games, drawing, designing, reading fairy tales, fantasy - are adequate conditions for the manifestation and development of creativity in them. With the introduction of the child into the school, the leading activity is teaching. The place and role of other occupations are drastically reduced. Games become episodic. Almost all children stop spontaneous drawing. They continue to study only with special training. Fairy tales give way to other literary genres.
By the end of preschool age, the vast majority of children show a high level of development of naive creativity , which manifests itself as a child's natural behavior in the absence of stereotypes. However, they still have very poor experience, there is no stock of knowledge, realism and critical thinking are not developed for self-monitoring of the process and results of creative activity.
The realization of creative potential is connected with the development of cultural creativity , which relies on the broad associational experience and multilateral knowledge of a person, the ability to orient oneself in them, to show fluency, flexibility and selectivity in their use. Cultural creativity is characteristic of an intellectually developed adult who is capable of self-regulation of creative activity. Its development depends on the characteristics of the microenvironment and life activity, the child's relationship with the society, on the conditions of education and upbringing.
Oh. K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001) believed that the influence of the family and the school is not so much a factor of development as in one way or another represents the "technique of suppressing creative thinking." In most modern families, parents are eager to give children a good education, to cultivate in them discipline, hard work, a sense of duty. This, of course, necessary and useful qualities, but they are not enough for a person to realize his creative potential. Good behavior and high performance for many parents are the main criteria for the successful learning of the child in school and the guarantee of his future successes in life.
In a traditional school class, it is easier for a teacher to work with obedient, disciplined, quickly mastering knowledge and even students who do not argue, do not ask "ridiculous" questions, ns distract teachers and students with various "fictions". From the first days of schooling, there is a contradiction between their natural children's creativity, which manifests itself in games, conversations, drawing, construction, and the content of training sessions, the requirements and expectations of teachers. The learning of knowledge mainly occurs with the support of memory and logical analysis of the material. The organization of independent thought search as the main condition for the development of creative thinking and imagination in the traditional system of education does not take up sufficient space.
There are also objective reasons for this. First, the amount of knowledge that students must master is constantly growing. Secondly, the mechanisms for the development of logical and creative thinking differ significantly. For logical thinking, the most important is the assimilation of systems of scientific concepts, ways of operating them, the use of rules and algorithms. The development of creativity requires the formation of skills to move away from given rules and learned ideas. It is very difficult to combine these contradictory tendencies in the learning process and it is not always possible.
In educational work with students, the strict regulation of their behavior and activities also prevails in comparison with the independence given to children and free creativity. Such conditions of education and upbringing are favorable for the formation of erudite and intellectually gifted individuals who can become qualified specialists in their field, but are unlikely to be able to create fundamentally new ideas in it. Modern society is interested in creating the conditions for developing the creative potential of each student. The way to this is to raise the level of education, develop and introduce new methods of developing creativity in the educational process, and the attitude to the individuality of each child as a value. Already today in the modern school much is being done for this. There are different types of educational institutions, widely used various versions of curricula and programs, which creates opportunities to take into account the interests and inclinations of each student. In educational and other kinds of activity active methods of training, role and business games, trainings of development of creativity are used.
One of the serious problems along this path is that many teachers still prioritize mastering knowledge, rather than developing the creative thinking and imagination of students, and do not consider the value of their personality to be valuable. Stereotypes in pedagogical activity, typical for traditional education, do not meet the requirements of modern society for the development of students' creativity, and their overcoming is an actual task of teacher training.
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