When it comes to tests of creativity, first of all, they mean tests of creative thinking. The first such tests appeared as early as the beginning of the 20th century. So, for the study of creative personalities before 1915, the open tasks of the test A. Binet with multiple forms of answers were applied. After the First World War, a lot of tests "on the imagination", "on a combination of ideas" appeared. and others. In the 1950s. Creativity tests were created by Guildford and his coworkers at the University of California.
These techniques, known as the South Caliphany tests, measured the characteristics of one of the types of thinking, called Guildford divergent. 14 tests were developed. In the first 10 of the subject, a verbal response was required, and in the last four, a response based on visual content was required.
Examples of verbal assignments
1. Ease of use. Write the words containing the indicated letter (the letter about : the burden, the pot, again ...).
2. Ease of use of associations. Write words that are similar in meaning to the given word (heavy: difficult, weighty, severe ...).
Example of a Fine Job
Design. The contours of well-known objects must be filled with as many details of these objects as possible.
The most famous in the 1950-1960's. There were tests "Alternative use", "Product improvement" and Implications & quot ;. Guildford's tests are aimed at adults and senior students. Their standardization was carried out on small samples, and data on reliability and validity vary considerably from test to test and are not satisfactory. According to psychologists, the reasons for the low effectiveness of Guildford's tests in assessing creativity are the setting for the speed of tasks and the lack of personal characteristics.
In addition, the tasks in them do not assume a certain number of answers, which prevents the objective counting of their indicators. For this reason, as some psychodiagnostics believe, for creativity tests it is necessary to establish the reliability of specialists evaluating their performance.
Currently, the most widely known and widely used tests of creative thinking E. P. Torrens (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking - TTCT). Despite his declared task to design test tasks as a model of the creative process and to reflect in them not the result but the process of creativity, in reality Torrens tests (especially verbal ones), in fact, are similar to Guilford's South California tests, and sometimes are their adaptation. In addition, the test scores are borrowed by Torrance from Guildford. However, Torrens did not attempt to create factor-pure (ie reflecting by one factor) tests, but sought to reflect the complexity of creative processes in them. Their formal characteristics (reliability, validity) are slightly better than those of Guildford, but they are still insufficient.
Torrens developed 12 tests, grouped into a verbal, pictorial and sound battery. He preferred not to use the term "creativity" in the names of his methods, referring them as batteries to verbal, visual and verbal-sound creative thinking. To relieve anxiety and create a favorable creative atmosphere, Torrence called his methods not tests, but classes.
The verbal test, developed in 1966, is intended for children starting at age five and adults. It consists of seven subtests. The first three are questions related to one picture: the subject is asked to ask as many questions as possible to the picture, to guess as many causes and consequences of what is depicted on it. In subtest 4, you should think up as many interesting and unusual ways of changing the toy shown in the picture. In subtest 5, you need to come up with as many interesting and unusual applications as possible in a known subject (for example, an empty box). In task 6, it is necessary to think up about the same subject as many unusual questions as possible. In subtest 7, it is required to present an unusual situation and to make as many guesses as possible about its possible consequences. The execution time of each subtest is limited. The test is group and has two parallel forms: A and B. The main indicators for the test are fluency, flexibility, originality and thoroughness of development. This test is translated into United States, but there is no data on its verification on reliability and validity, as well as on standardization in the domestic sample. Therefore, the verbal Torrens test in our country can be used only for research purposes.
Torrance's Torrens also appeared in 1966. His translation, adaptation and re-standardization in the native subjects were performed by EI Shcheblanova, N. P. Shcherbo and N. B. Shumakova. It is intended for subjects from 5 to 18 years. This test consists of three subtests. The answers to all tasks are given in the form of drawings and signatures to them. Subtest 1 Draw a picture requires the testers to paste on a piece of paper a figure of irregular shape, cut from colored paper, and on this basis draw any original picture. In subtest 2 Finish drawing on the basis of unfinished figures depicted in the test notebook, draw unusual story pictures or objects. In subtest 3, you need to draw as many objects as possible on the basis of parallel lines or circles. The execution time of each subtest is limited to 10 minutes (the analysis of answers is carried out according to the criteria of fluency, flexibility, originality and thoroughness of development).
The battery of verbal-sound creative thinking consists of two tests, conducted using tape recording. First Test Sounds & Images uses as the object for recognition sounds, the second test "Onomatopoeia and images" uses onomatopoeic words, i.e. words simulating natural sounds (for example, resembling a creak or crack). The first test consists of four sound sequences, presented three times, the second - from nine words, presented four times. In both tests, after listening to the sound recording, the subject must write what he considers to be similar to each sound. The answers are evaluated only by the index of originality. In our country this battery was not used.
Another, the latest in the creation of the Creativity test (for preschoolers), manifested in action and movement, was developed by Torrens in 1980. The tasks of this test are designed in such a way as to give the child the opportunity to show his creativity in the process of free movement in any room. The same four creativity rates are recorded as in the other Torrance tests.
Despite the desire of psychologists to contrast creative thinking with reproductive thinking, in practice, creativity tests were built on the same principles as intelligence tests, that is, they were high-speed techniques with a rigidly defined content. Researchers believe that their main drawback is the lack of motivation and other personal characteristics of individuals that are essential aspects of creativity.
The literature emphasizes the impact of testing conditions on the performance of creativity tests. Thus, M. Wollach and N. Kogan (1965) pointed to the need for individual testing, a gaming atmosphere, and the absence of time constraints. It is shown that time constraints affect different children differently: some of them give original answers very quickly, others only after a certain pause. The latter receive low creativity ratings under time constraints and high ones - in the absence of such restrictions.
The reliability of creativity tests is usually lower than that required by psychodiagnosis, but high enough to not consider that random fluctuations of qualities are measured. Thus, in a ten-year longitudinal study, the reliability of Torrens' creative thinking tests ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, depending on the sex of the subjects and the method of evaluation. Data on the connection of Torrens' tests with the criteria of creative achievements is not enough. Some indicate a small prognosticality. Thus, the study of N. Kogan and E. Pankov (1974), in which the measurements of the creativity of students in the 5th and 10th grades were compared with creative achievements at the end of the school (seven years and two years respectively), showed that the correlation coefficients for fifth graders are equal to 0, and for the 10th grade are very small and not significant.
There were also low correlations between the indicators of creativity tests and the teacher's creativity rating (0.10).
At the same time, analysis of 70 studies of predictive validity of creativity tests showed that correlations with creative achievements in real life are often statistically significant. For example, students who had the highest scores on creativity tests, significantly more often had higher scores on extracurricular activities (painting, music) than their peers who received low test scores. The test scores significantly predicted creative achievements in 10 years in boys, but not in girls2. Thus, although the validity of creativity tests is not constant, they give reason to believe that these tests measure aspects of human mental performance that are not evaluated by other diagnostic procedures. Torrens conducted several longitudinal studies for a duration of 6, 7 years and 22 years, and concluded that his tests measure something different from what intelligence tests measure. This means that the discriminative validity of the creativity tests has been confirmed. The data on their predictive validity are still contradictory, which can be explained by the fact that creative processes are complex, and the development of more complex procedures is required to obtain highly valid tests. Similar tests were created in Europe. Thus, in Germany, tests of divergent thinking have been created. Meinberger (1977), Tests of verbal creativity Shoppe (1975), Mr. Crumpen with co-authors (1988). Original creativity tests were developed in Italy by J. Calvi (1966), in Spain by E. Auzmendi and co-authors (1996).
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