Crisis phenomena of adolescence
Researchers, who consider the adolescent period to be a crisis, say that the peak of the crisis is 12-14 years old. In terms of duration, this period is in any case greater than all other crisis periods.
Teenage crisis is characterized by the fact that at this age, the relationship between adolescents and others changes. They begin to make high demands on themselves and adults and protest against treating themselves as small.At this stage, the behavior of children is dramatically changing: many of them become rude, uncontrollable, do everything in defiance of the elders, do not obey them, ignore remarks (adolescent negativism) or, conversely, may become withdrawn.
If adults are sensitive to the needs of the child and at the first negative manifestations rebuild their relationship with children, then the transition period is not so violently and painfully for both sides. Otherwise, the teenage crisis is very violent. It is influenced by external and internal factors.
To external factors include continuing control by adults, dependence and care that the teenager seems excessive. He seeks to get rid of them, considering himself old enough to make his own decisions and act as he sees fit. The teenager is in a rather complicated situation: on the one hand, he really became more adult, but on the other hand, his child's traits are preserved in his psychology and behavior: he does not take his duties seriously enough, he can not act responsibly and independently. All this leads to the fact that adults can not yet perceive it as an equal to themselves.
However, an adult needs to change attitudes toward adolescents, otherwise the latter may encounter resistance, which in time will lead to misunderstandings between adults and adolescents and interpersonal conflict, and then to a delay in personal development. The adolescent may feel a sense of uselessness, apathy, alienation, a belief that adults can not understand and help him. As a result, at a time when a teenager really needs support and help from the elders, it will happen
emotional rejection from the adult, and the latter will lose the ability to influence the child and help him.
To avoid such problems, it is necessary to build relationships with a teenager on the basis of trust, respect, and friendship. The creation of such a relationship helps to attract a teenager to some serious work.
Internal factors reflect the personal development of the adolescent. Changing habits and character traits that prevent him from doing what he has planned: violating internal prohibitions, losing the habit of obeying adults, etc. There is a desire for personal self-improvement, which occurs through the development of self-knowledge (reflection), self-expression, self-affirmation. The teenager is critical of his shortcomings, both physical and personal (character traits), is experiencing because of those traits that prevent him from establishing friendly contacts and relationships with people. Negative statements in his address can lead to affective outbursts and conflicts.
At this age, there is an intensive growth of the body, which entails behavioral changes and emotional outbursts: the teenager begins to be very nervous, blaming himself for insolvency, which leads to internal tension, which is difficult for him to cope with.
Behavioral changes are manifested in the desire to "experience everything, go through all", there is a tendency to risk. Teen attracts everything that was previously banned. Many of the curiosities try alcohol, drugs, start smoking. If this is done not out of curiosity, but because of the courage, there may be a psychological dependence on narcotic substances, although sometimes curiosity leads to a persistent dependence.
At this age, spiritual growth takes place and the mental status changes. Reflection, which extends to the surrounding world and itself, leads to internal contradictions, in the basis of which is the loss of identity with oneself, the discrepancy of former ideas about oneself with today's image. These contradictions can lead to obsessive states: doubts, fears, depressing thoughts about oneself.
The manifestation of negativism can be expressed in some adolescents in a meaningless confrontation with other, unmotivated contradictions (most often adults) and others
protest reactions. Adults (teachers, parents, relatives) need to rebuild their relationship with a teenager, try to understand his problems and make the transition period less painful.
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