Neo-Freudians rebuked Z. Freud in the fact that in his theoretical activities, as well as in practical work, he did not address the problems of culture. K. Horney believed that the ignoring of cultural factors by Freud led to false generalizations. Moreover, as she believed, it was because of this that psychoanalysis came to a standstill. To a certain extent these observations are correct. True, the research evolution of Freud led him to a more careful study of the cultural context. Freud revealed the genesis of culture, based on the natural instincts of man. In his opinion, a congenital unconscious attraction caused sin, which turned out to be a turning point in the origin of man, the first-rate driver of human history. Culture, Z. Freud believed, demonstrates two sides. First, it encompasses all the knowledge and skills acquired by people that give people the opportunity to master the forces of nature and to receive from them material benefits to meet their needs. Secondly, it includes all those institutions that are necessary for the ordering of relationships in society, especially for the distribution of achievable material goods.Originally attached to the Freud school, K. Horney, GS Sullivan, E. Fromm and A. Cardiner, under the influence of American sociological and behavioral theories began to attach great importance to the role of the social environment. They considered the impact of society on man as decisive for the formation of his psyche. An important influence on neo-Freudianism was provided by the American school of cultural anthropology. The researchers found that human nature as a relatively coherent given does not at all generate a single cultural space. In some regions of the Earth there are diverse phenomena that reflect the value-spiritual practice of man. Cultural worlds are unique, they demonstrate different types of mentality, which leads to the conclusion about the extraordinary diversity of the cultural experience of mankind.
The forms that take biological and social processes are innumerable, and these forms are cultural. Let us take an example where the biological and the social are closely intertwined. In many cultures, the physically weak are always at a disadvantage. But there are groups in which there are special restraining mechanisms that do not allow the strong to use the weak. Intimidation receives public censure and is therefore extremely rare. In some societies, there is a tendency to assign physically weak to privileged positions.
Cultural anthropology proceeded from the following proposition: put people brought up in different societies and following different traditions to one uninhabited island. What each of them sees will not be the same. The ways of their behavior under the new conditions will not be the same. Between people and their environment is an intangible and invisible, but very real screen. This screen is culture & quot ;.
Such an abundance of cultural phenomena pushes K. Horney and other neo-Freudians to the conclusion: there can not be any neuroses that are inherent in a person by definition, what in one culture causes neurotic reactions, in another culture can be the norm. Let's take some illustrations. The man of archaic culture was convinced that for the birth of a child, one must certainly kill an outsider. Otherwise, whence will the soul take it, which will pass into the womb of his wife? And here he goes in search of a victim, tormented by his father's instinct. But the victim does not hurry to get under his arrow. This gives rise to a strained, neurotic state. But after all, a modern person, ready to have a descendant, does not necessarily have to kill another person.
Take other illustrations. A man of the ancient world used to spend the money he earned for his own needs. How much has earned - so much is expected and good. The very idea of accumulation, i.e. leaving the money for a "black day" would seem strange to him. The one who put off saving, felt not quite comfortable. He could have involuntarily found himself in a neurotic situation. Creditors constantly experienced the dictates of common cultural traditions, which condemn the "life ahead".
A girl who does not seek to find her place in society, to gain social status, would be normal in the culture of pueblo. However, in the modern world, the young special would find herself in a neurotic situation precisely because she did not take place, she did not find herself. Is it possible to consider a person as normal who claims to feel the approach of an animal and can show signs on his body that will help him to know about it? However, in Bushman culture, this is considered a normal rule. A European who has fallen into such a social environment, apparently, could experience neurotic states.
For a Japanese to commit in certain circumstances the act of hara-kiri is nothing but a matter of honor. Anyone who could not meet duty, would be despised. However, in Orthodox culture such an act would be regarded as the destruction of the soul. Marriage contracts have become a tradition in the Western world, but in the United States culture they take root with difficulty. The very thought of sharing property at the time of the wedding, when the marriage is before God, is considered blasphemous.
A man of archaic culture, talking to a deceased grandfather, would seem to a modern person a psychotic. But in ancient cultures this was the norm. For a Jew to give money at a huge interest - the cause of joy, and for the United States - an excuse for confession and repentance. In the Pushkin tragedy "The Mean Knight" Albert blamed usurer for the fact that he does not recognize the knightly word, and he does not pay attention to this nervous symptom. The tragedy ends with the words of the Duke: "A terrible century, terrible hearts!". And in fact, there is something to shudder. The son raises his hand on his father. Ubudzhnie looks into other people's eyes, reading in them the ruthless will. People are ready to serve wealth, as the "Algerian slave, like a dog chain." Terrible, ignorant mercy self-interest. Heart, overgrown with moss. The disintegration of human dignity.
However, we ask ourselves: what century was cruel? Is that medieval, with tournaments? Or - the next, inscribed in the history of terrible pages of initial accumulation? And the extermination of entire nations - Negroes, Indians, Arabs - accompanying the era of colonization? And maybe, "horrible hearts" - this is about us? After all, we, the people of our era, tossed a mushroom cloud to the sky. We brought the suffering nature to bleeding wounds. This is seen in our eyes a naked woman from the documentary of Mikhail Romma "Ordinary Fascism" about the atrocities of the Nazis. Holy of our time, she covers her breasts with her hands before the instant of execution ...The Indians (and also the white Americans) were told of military valor with scalps, taken even from living people, while United Statess at the same historical period and the same valor were testified to the forgiveness of the vanquished and care for the wounded and prisoners. A few decades ago, a woman who had entered into pre-marital sexual relations was considered to be fallen. She was despised, and she experienced deep neurotic feelings. Today, it seems, free connections are becoming popular.
Indian children who come to Russia are most surprised that our children call their parents on "you". In India, it is not accepted that way. The parents are only contacted by you .
Let's think about how best to build relationships with loved ones. A. Pushkin has the lines empty you changed "heart you". This is expressed by the poet on another occasion, but still: is it really better to keep in touch with your parents? Which strategy is better? Keep emotional closeness, turn to parents on you or, at the risk of this distance, bear the baton of respect for parents? Each culture chooses its own strategy. And in it, in this strategy, there is both positive and negative. Probably, the Chinese culture, which posed to the family the problem of preserving strategies, demanded that children unconditionally venerate. The philosopher Confucius taught that society should resemble a large family in which subjects honor parents and love each other like brothers. The ancient Chinese not only treated their parents with great respect, but also followed their will. The girl could not get married if her parents did not approve of her choice.
It is difficult for us, Europeans, to imagine such a situation that our adult children choose their spouse on the advice of their parents. This seems impossible. Even after the death of his father or mother, a young man who wanted to marry a girl, but did not receive the consent of his parents, had to wait a few more years, when, according to tradition, he could finally marry of his own free will.
According to the laws of medieval China, an adult son could forgo the ban of his parents only five years after their death. Is it good or bad? Each people has its own cultural characteristics, its own rules of life. It may seem strange to a person in European culture to call parents "you", to coordinate their love with their father and mother, to honor their will even after their death. However, these traditions helped the Chinese people maintain the high dignity of the family. Perhaps the son or daughter could see some shortcomings from their parents. But they did not for a moment forget that these people, father and mother, gave them life. In the Chinese culture there could not have appeared such a hero as Pavlik Morozov, because according to Chinese medieval laws the son who reported on his father was punished severely, up to the death penalty.
In European culture, cordial intimacy, the opportunity to talk with parents as equals (i.e., "you") was valued higher than in ancient Chinese. Children born in royal or royal families could not marry or marry without the consent of their parents. They were considered with the will of the father or mother in cases when parents had capital. But in general in European culture there was no such cult of the family as in ancient China. Children are not always considered with the will of their parents.
As a result, European culture knows such a phenomenon as the conflict of generations. Parents do not believe that children should address them only on "you", close "you" between relatives is much better. Children can choose a different way of life, marry their own choice. Parents often suffer that children live their lives without dedicating parents, do not give their father and mother due respect. Not all children are imbued with the thought that it was parents who gave them the opportunity to live on this earth. For example, you can hear this: And I did not ask to give birth at all. They did not even ask my opinion. " In ancient Chinese culture, this is absolutely impossible. The young man and the girl obeyed the will of their parents. They knew that they themselves will become old men and they will be given deep respect, that they will be rewarded for their behavior.
The idea of K. Horney that the nature of the neurosis depends primarily on social factors, on cultural values, proved to be very productive. As a result, substantial changes have taken place within Freudianism. Thus, the theory of sublimation and the doctrine of libido were rejected. Neo-Freudians essentially "sociologized" psychology. The first attempts to explain the similarities and differences of cultures assumed the mental unity of man. They studied the reactions of the human body to a variety of incentives and living conditions. Human psychology was evaluated as plastic and capable of infinite variability.
When we are dealing with a different culture, we are concerned with the question of how to avoid mistakes that are related to the uniqueness of the mentality of another country, another people. Why is it difficult for a European to enter the eastern business, for example? Business life in East Asia has a "family character". Entrepreneurs try to do business not alone, but relying on the closest people. Therefore, they have personal relationships within the firm and personal obligations. It's clear that it's hard for a foreigner to get inside this eastern business ethics.
Eastern culture is based on such concepts that are not easily combined in the minds of Europeans: hierarchy and harmony. For a Westerner, the hierarchy, of course, makes it possible to create a kind of order, but it can hardly provide consent. After all, Europeans have to fulfill the will of the leader. So, to harmony away. You can only talk about coordinated actions.
The same will be the same for a European, and, say, for a Japanese, the notion of equality. In the European consciousness, people are born equal, and therefore have the right to feel themselves equal within society. For a Chinese or Japanese, equality is not a universal principle, but an opportunity to be with someone on the same level of organization. Equality is found only in the sense that two marshals or two sergeants can be equal, because they are on the same level of hierarchical ledges.
Unlike Europeans, the Chinese and Japanese constantly identify themselves with a certain group. It can be a family, a firm, a professional union. Therefore, they have a strong ability to act together, but always remember their situation. The European, on the contrary, is accustomed to independence, he tries to break away from the group, rise above it, move to another group. For an Oriental person, the value is not independence or separation, but, on the contrary, involvement in something. This is the same feeling that a person feels, singing in the course or stepping in the line.
When you talk with an oriental person, you may be disappointed by his interest in you not as an individual, but as an exponent of the social nomenclature. A Japanese at the first conversation will certainly try to find out what your social status is, what position you occupy, what you have experience, rewards and characteristics. He will certainly check if more senior people know about you. The fate of business contact depends on all this information.
Much of the business relationship involves direct contact. If the acquaintance happens by fax or even by phone, then it is unlikely to get a follow-up. In Western Europe or North America - on the contrary. Japanese or Chinese can only meet face to face, exchange business cards. But even more important will be the recommendation. After all, it is she who can help the European to enter the system of business relations of Japanese business to some extent. However, the recommendation is not perceived as a formal courtesy, to which it is not obliging courtesy. The recommenders are responsible for both sides. That's why the European, who creates business relations in the East, seeks to establish business contact as high as possible.
Explaining the specifics of business ethics in China and Japan, Vsevolod Ovchinnikov gives a simple illustration. The competition in the West raises the question: who will get the pie? In the East, they argue how to divide it? And the competition itself has a different meaning and content for the Japanese. The European seeks to win a complete victory, to eliminate and humiliate the competitor. Eastern businessmen try to prevent the predominance of one side over another. You can not bring the competition to such an intensity that the enemy "lost face", was humiliated, offended, and even more so crushed. This best expresses the ancient right for the rickshaw. The young driver had the opportunity to get ahead of the old, only by reducing the distance, changing the route. In no case should superiority show itself in a morbid demonstrative form.
The Japanese business community is trying to reduce direct competition to an unobtrusive level. If in England or the United States competition is based on fair play, then in China or Japan it assumes the receipt of a "suitable share." In every branch of Japanese business, there is either the Big Three, the Big Four, or the Big Five. They share the lion's share of the market among themselves. For example, 22% for Nissan, 17% for Honda, 14% for Mitsubishi, and what remains for all others (who themselves share this quota with each other).>
If a firm makes concessions when concluding a trade or industrial transaction, it gets an advantage when discussing another issue that is not at all related to the former. In this case, the willingness of partners to make a deal is evaluated, the desire for compromise is considered as an absolute virtue. Moral approach to problems in the eastern people involves evaluating the act as good or bad, appropriate or improper. None of the businessmen of the East will insist on the items of the contract, if circumstances have changed. If the situation is different, it is important to revise the previous agreements.
Chinese and Japanese leaders rarely make their own decisions. Anonymous general agreement is valued here. In the American firm, it is the president and board of directors that offer a certain will and implement it with the help of the team. In Asia there is no team movement from top to bottom. On the contrary, all points of the agreement, all aspects of business life are discussed below. Therefore, the leader does not express anybody's personal will, he embodies the general agreement that has been achieved through long and versatile concessions.
None of the Japanese will not stand out from the collective, participate in an open confrontation. Therefore, the development of a common agreement lasts a long time. Each manager gradually adjusts his position, focusing on other interests. The discussion does not involve the desire to "dodavit partner", but the achievement of a compromise. That's why the president of the company is just an arbiter who chooses from several options one that does not cause new discussions.
It is no accident that European businessmen in business negotiations with the Chinese or Japanese, often fail. They require immediate action, immediate action, try to immediately put all the cards on the table. But this does not arouse the support of their eastern partners. An American entrepreneur, like the modern United States one, places his own profit at the heart of the matter. The man of Asia "thinks about his country before, and then about himself." The issues related to the debt to the country, to the staff are thoroughly discussed. The topic of real profit arises in the last place. Compare this with the United States reality, with vain attempts to persuade the oligarchs to charity or to fulfill their obligations to the staff.
The European is educated in the spirit of the ideals of freedom, the cult of individualism. The Far Eastern morality puts the common good above personal interests. According to Vsevolod Ovchinnikov, this trait is also genetically inherent in United Statess, who, in fact, are not so much Europeans as Eurasians. Japan, which embarked on the path of information development, feels that traditions sometimes hamper the successful advancement of the country, group morality does not promote creative competition, the autonomy of the individual. The system of lifelong hiring loses meaning in the era of computer science. In this, according to Sun. Ovchinnikova, the root cause of the crisis, which led in the 1990's. to the phenomenon of the "lost generation".
The consciousness of the Asian man proves to be contradictory in the conditions of the information society. On the one hand, the Japanese way of life and traditional morality make him shy, hide behind a social mask. But on the other hand, it gives rise to a sense of loneliness, a thirst for communication. So, Japan proposes to leave the "kingdom of groups"; in the "kingdom of personalities". But will there be a complete elimination of traditional cultural values? In Japan, radical changes have occurred before, but it has withstood their onslaught, following the wise principles of judo - to yield to the onslaught, to make a difference, but at the same time to remain oneself. "Figuratively speaking, Japan will never become a Russophile, although it has become the fashion of the" golden youth "for blondes today."
In Yemen, there are a lot of prejudices and rules, sometimes reaching the point of absurdity. For example, women can not go to the cemetery, because the dead can see what is under it under the Abaya. Another prohibition - women can not shave a machine, and you can only use a freebie - a mixture of burnt sugar and additives for hair removal. It is hot on the skin like wax. By the way, hair after a freebie grows
much slower than after waxing. Usually, Arab women make themselves an epilation of the whole body before the wedding. Eastern women (and dancers are no exception) are very fond of heavy spicy smells. When you come back from the East, for a long time you can not get out of sweet spirits. Moreover, in Yemen and Jordan aromatic essences are sold that are added to all expensive perfumes, but they are inexpensive. Especially prized in the men and women there bahor - a cross between essences. On Thursdays in Yemen, the wife should smoke with bahor hair and clothes, light the bahoric pieces over the candle so that the room is soaked with the aroma, in general, nabahoritsya. On eastern men, this smell acts poshlyche Viagra. Even the little boys, feeling the aroma of bahora coming from their aunts, start to get on with it.
To understand the concrete actions of a person, it was necessary, according to neo-Freudians, to answer the following questions:
1. What are the innate gifts and limits of man?
2. What is their previous experience?
3. What is his immediate situation?
Neo-Freudians, like cultural anthropologists, believed that "innate gifts" manifest themselves only as a result of the action of cultural processes. For example, in a hospital in New Mexico, children were born zuni, Navajo and white American. They can be defined as overly active, medium and inactive. The children of each racial group fell into each of these categories, although most of the white children were seen as being overly active. However, in two years the Zuni child no longer looked more active than the white baby, but compared to other children of his tribe, he seemed most active. The Navajo child occupied the position between a white child and a zuni child. But he remained overly active for the norms of his native tribe.
The desire of K. Horney to clarify the concept of neurosis deserves recognition. Her wide popularity was due to the fact that she was among the first to switch from studying the classical forms of neurosis to recognizing the newest types of pathology in modern society. Now, almost sixty years later (the work "The Neurotic Personality of Our Time" was published in 1937), we can compare the neurotic reactions of our days with those that were in K. Horney's field of vision.
The American researcher writes about the desire for power. Here it is clearly under the influence of A. Adler, who believed that the basis of human activity is the desire for personal superiority. This idea-goal, although it is only vaguely realized by the individual, becomes the center of the formation of the personality, conditioning its psyche. Personality in its formation, Adler believed, is always social. K. Horney insists that power, prestige and possession are aspects of one problem. A normal person, in her opinion, seeks to build a multifaceted relationship with other people. The neurotic, on the contrary, tries to dominate, gain prestige and achieve prosperity. Of course, K. Horney clarifies his thought: the neurotic desire for power is born from anxiety, hatred and a sense of inferiority.
In order to fully appreciate these conclusions, one should approach the main theses of the psychoanalytic theory of K. Horney. She believes that the relationship between the parent and the child is crucial for the development of the person.
Thus, K. Horney tries to reject the theory of sexuality of Freud. She believes that the connection between early experiences and later features turned out to be more complex than suggested by Freud. Therefore, it is important to re-search for those environmental factors that are responsible for the emergence of neurotic conflicts.In various works, K. Horney noted that neuroses are not due to the Oedipus complex, but from violations in human relationships. Poets and philosophers of all times knew that a serene, balanced person never becomes a victim of mental disorders, but this is always a man torn apart by internal conflicts. Any neurosis is a certain kind of neurosis. And he is born from a sense of isolation, helplessness, fear and hostility.
However, after eliminating the Freudian concept of psychosexual personality development, K. Horney failed to analyze deeply the phenomenon of power. Indeed, what is the internal (introspective) psychological picture, the motivational basis for the inhuman behavior of the rulers themselves (rulers, hierarchs, authorities) who, without losing their spiritual comfort, are doomed people not adversity and suffering? "Power corrupts a person, absolute power corrupts absolutely. "Is it possible that any person who has gained power is capable of such" corruption "? Or only" favorites "?
According to K. Horney, not all cultures as a value are power, prestige or wealth. Power is the ability and real ability of rulers or people to exert a radical and all-encompassing influence on the activities, behavior, conscience and thoughts of people, to manage their destinies. In the most primitive societies, where the main source of livelihood was hunting or gathering, the power was exercised by a person who was universally recognized as competent to perform this task. What qualities this person should have possessed depended more on concrete circumstances. Typically, these qualities included life experience, wisdom, generosity, skill, "appearance", courage. In many tribes there was no permanent power. It was established only when there was a need for it. Various representatives of the authorities carried it out in various spheres: warfare, the dispensation of religion, the resolution of disputes. When the qualities on which this power rested disappeared or weakened, power ceased to exist.
However, in modern conditions, it is precisely the desire for power that characterizes the civilizational structure. The American futurist E. Toffler, noting that knowledge will become the password of the new century, at the same time adds: it is knowledge that will provide the opportunity to rule. Power is least of all triggered by healthy needs. A normal desire for power, according to K. Horney, is born from strength. However, the neurotic drive to dominate these days also derives from power, from the desire to impose one's will and one's dictates. Neurotic desire for power, prestige and possession serve not only as a defense against anxiety, inferiority. They allow you to sublimate the enormous energy of aggression and hostility.
The authorities are constantly concerned about the search for the "enemy" and successfully finds it. A textual analysis of Hitler's speeches showed that, accusing the Jews and Communists of all the woes of the German people, the leader of the Nazis only once called them directly. In other speeches, he said: "they, you know who I'm talking about ...". And the furious crowd screamed: "we know ...". In our today's reality, the image of the oligarch as the main culprit of all our modern ills is successfully molded.
A neurotic who has a craving for power, will strive to ensure that life lies under him. He will not adapt to reality, take into account its requirements. On the contrary, such a person will exert the strongest resistance to the challenges of time, the enemy's installations. The bearer of power is important that the world responds to his desires and recognizes them as legitimate. That's why in politics, short-sightedness, stubbornness, authoritarian will are so often found.
The modern reader will obviously be interested in how K. Horney analyzes the neurotic desire for wealth. It shows that the irrational desire to become an owner is widespread in our culture. The cult of money was not inherent in many cultures. But nowadays it is becoming almost universal. No wonder the metaphor was born "get sick with money". New United Statess in our country asserted themselves in unceasing battles, with colossal mental overloads.
Can a person succeed in avoiding the shadow side of his wealth and power? Many believe that it's important to "compensate" self-relaxation, distraction from constant mobilization. Most often resort to alcohol or use prostitutes. Meanwhile, the huge effect of overcoming the psychopathic structure gives sports, emotional emancipation, auto-training ... A person of success can wish "to amuse" in itself a child: buy yourself a soft toy, eat ice cream or write a non-business letter to a friend & quot ;. Success enhances a person's social status. But it includes a huge risk zone: first of all, to get a somatic disease or an emotional world.
But before revealing the reasons for the painful need for love, K. Horney notes that, ideally, love is generous, unselfish. After all, a mother loves her child simply because he is, and not for his beauty, talents, or willingness to be her support in old age. Love is an extraordinary gift. It allows you to identify specifically human in a person.
But does everyone know how to love? Is this feeling innate, inherent in human nature by definition? K. Horney and her supporters believe that only within society does a person acquire this miraculous property.
After all, people are not born, they become human beings. It is in the family that the infant receives the experience of love or the experience of hatred. In some archaic societies, there were traditions that allowed you to attain a certain age after attaining sexual experience on a particular day, when a holiday of maturity was celebrated. However, these customs are not fixed. After all, love is a secret feeling. Anthropologists and historians argue that individual love is a product of cultural development.
Originally, the word libido Freud expressed only a sexual attraction. In other words, it did not have an ontological depth. It implied the eternal presence of deep sexual energy in the biological sense. It was like a similar interpretation of energy, which since the time of Robert Maier was fixed in physics. However, those contexts in which the concept of libido in Freud, gives rise to philosophical meanings. From this point of view, the fact that late Freud more often referred to the notion of Eros in comparison with Thanatos is important ...
To. Horney thinks about the question of whether the phenomenon of the neurotic need for love in general is not caused by dissatisfaction in sexual life. In her opinion, the links between feelings of love, tenderness and sexuality are not as tight as we believe. Neurotic search for love is not just a sexual phenomenon. That is why it is so difficult to understand why love demands the unconditional belonging to a particular person, the feeling of rejection. The thought of K. Horney can be expressed as follows: human relationships based on love are much richer than simple sexual bonds.
In fact, in many cases, people enter into sexual relations because of the inability to establish normal interpersonal relationships. Sexuality, therefore, can be placed at the service of establishing human contact. Loving languor is replaced by sexual experiences. But intimate affinity can fulfill another function, which is also neurotic in itself. Much of the sexual activity is more a valve for the release of psychological stress.
We must immediately note that the phenomenon of masochism was investigated by K. Horney with sufficient depth. At the time when she was creating her work, many believed that masochism was, in fact, a sexual phenomenon. It was assumed that he expresses the desire for satisfaction and represents a desire to suffer. Horney's hypothesis was that masochistic aspirations are aimed at satisfying, namely, oblivion, liberation from one's own self with all conflicts and limitations. However, the feelings themselves live differently. The carrier of the masochistic structure is prone to self-abasement. He feels unattractive, unimportant, unpretentious. Another form of renunciation is narcissism. The bearer of this psychological structure needs the admiration of other people. A perfectionist (a man who paranoidly strives to be the first in everything) is concerned about maintaining his independence.
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