Definitions in Mindset Theories and Research Methods

AP Mindset Identifications

History

  • Wilhelm Wundt- (1832-1920) He's the creator of scientific mindset because he was the first person to open up a Psychology lab in 1879. Wundt is closely tied to structuralism which uses introspection to concentrate on the basic components of consciousness.
  • Introspection- introspection is a way for people to look within themselves and express what they are sense and pondering. Wundt used this method in the structuralism college of psychology to be able to understand the structure of your brain and to identify the basic elements of awareness.
  • William James- (1842-1910) He's an American Psychologist that is closely associated with functionalism. He was considering the function and reason for our behavioral functions and how they intertwine with our environment.
  • Functionalism- The functionalism aspect of psychology is targeted how our metal functions help us to adjust to the environment. They used methods such as blast of consciousness in order to help explain our action.
  • Max Wertheimer- (1880-1943) He's a psychologist mainly known to be a creator of the Gestalt theory who also made contributions to perception, discomfort and experimental psychology.
  • Sigmund Freud- (1856-1939) He was an Austrian Doctor who's known for creating the Psychoanalytic method of psychology. He assumed that our actions and the way we perceive things are dictated by our unconscious. He also explained that our brain was divided into 3 parts: the Id, Ego, and Superego.
  • Psychoanalytic theory- That is Freud's theory our thoughts and actions result from our unconscious. He believed talking along with his patients over a long time frame could bring some of their unconscious stories into light and help them get over their struggles.
  • John Watson- (1878-1958) He was a behaviorist that is most well-known for his "Little Albert" experiment. He paired a white rat with noisy noises and because of this little Albert began crying and was fearful of the rat. He presumed that this exhibited our behaviors are learned.
  • Ivan Pavlov- (1849-1936)He was a behaviorist that founded the idea of classical fitness. He's most known for his test out dogs where he paired a tone with food which created a conditioned respond to the firmness (dog drooling).
  • B. F. Skinner- (1904-1990) Skinner was a behaviorist that founded operant fitness. He created a box (Skinner's Pack) in which rats have to hit a club for food. This pack demonstrates our action is greatly affected by the results after a tendencies.
  • Behaviorism- This is the perspective of mindset that feels everything we do is a learned response to a predicament. They only have confidence in objective science and therefore do not believe in any of the mental or unconscious procedures.
  • Humanist perspective- This point of view of psychology thinks we all have been good people and we have to meet our progress potential. It also states that to be able to move on to the next level of growth all of the needs below it need to be satisfied.
  • Psychoanalytic perspective- This perspective of psychology is focused about how our thoughts and actions are a product in our unconscious erotic urges. In addition, it targets our development through the psycho intimate stages.
  • Biopsychology (or neuroscience) perspective- This perspective of psychology is focused on the associations of biological, neuroscience, patterns, and our psychological operations. Psychologists in this field review how our genes and our environment interact.
  • Evolutionary perspective- This perspective focuses on how natural selection has influenced human behaviors and traits and why we become we do based on evolution.
  • Behavioral Point of view- This point of view of mindset only focuses on observable action and how exactly we have learned to react to different situations. Behaviorists do not have confidence in anything that goes on inside of the mind because they can not directly view it.
  • Cognitive perspective- This point of view of psychology studies how exactly we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. By studying this they hope to learn how we solve problems, reason and react to situations based how we think.
  • Social-cultural perspective- This perspective of psychology is targeted on how we have been shaped by our culture and exactly how our relationships and beliefs differ from someone with another type of cultural backdrop.

Research Methods

  • Hindsight bias- in research methods, this is actually the tendency to believe they recognized something would happen all along after they see the end result. For example, you anticipate the Mavericks were heading to win but they lost, following the game you will think, I understood they would lose because their Point Safeguard was off all game.
  • Applied research- Applied research is a study method used to find solutions to day-to-day problems such as stress.
  • Basic research- This research method is employed to do research for the sake of science itself also to accomplish technological gain.
  • Hypothesis- In medical method, a hypothesis is a testable prediction often predicated on a theory.
  • Theory- In medical method, a theory is an observation that predicts behaviors or situations. To be able to test a theory you must make a hypothesis predicated on the theory you desire to be tested.
  • Operational definitions- In technological method, an functional definition are the set of strategies used to explain the research parameters.
  • Validity- In the rules of test engineering, validity is how well the test can forecast what it was made to predict. For instance, a travelling test is utilized to test if you know the laws on driving and how to properly handle an automobile; this test is pretty reliable in screening the topic it was designed to test.
  • Reliability- Inside the guidelines of test development, trustworthiness is how steady the scores on a test are. You will find two ways to check reliability, you can have someone take the test twice and see how the results compare or you can separate the test by even and peculiar numbers and have them take both testing. With both of these methods the ratings should be close if the test is reliable.
  • Sampling- In research methods, an example is some of something that is used to signify the entirety of what's being sampled. The sample is usually a random sample because that usually will usually yield results applicable to the entirety of what's being sampled.
  • Population- In random sampling, society is the entirety of the group you are learning. Usually assessment or polling a whole human population would take too much time, that's the reason research workers often use arbitrary sampling of the population.
  • Random selection- In random sampling, random selection is a sample that accurately signifies an entire human population because everyone has an equal potential for being randomly decided on.
  • Stratified sampling- in research methods, stratified sampling is whenever a population is segregated based on standards such as gender, competition or income. After you have your population grouped they are randomly sampled in each category.
  • Experiment- In research methods, an test is whenever a researcher manipulates the independent variables in order to influence the dependent parameters. Experiments can be used to find cause and effect.
  • Confounding variables- In research methods, confounding factors are outside affects other than the independent changing. To prevent confounding variables the experimenter must limit the variables that the individuals of the test have.
  • Assignment- In research methods, assignment is the technique the researcher uses to be able to assign the participants of an test to an organization.
  • Random task- in research methods, random task is to assign the participants to a arbitrary group. This technique tends to deliver the most correct results because everything is random.
  • Experimenter bias- In research methods, Experimenter bias is when the researcher affects the experiment to be able to obtain the results he wanted. To avoid this from happening the researcher usually just observes the test and does not have any discussion with it.
  • Double-blind process- In research methods, a twice blind procedure is ways to prevent bias in the experiment. With all the double blind method neither the experimenters nor the members know which group they are in.
  • Participant bias (AKA response bias)- In research methods, participant bias is the propensity for the individuals to act just how they think the researcher desires them to act. As a result of this data can be inaccurate because the individuals were responding the way they thought the experimenter wanted, not the way they actually sensed.
  • Hawthorne impact- In research methods, the Hawthorn impact is that when people know they are being detected they tend to change their habit based after what they think the observer wishes to see.
  • Correlation- In research methods, relationship is the relationship that two parameters have. The correlation can measure from -1 to 1 1. -1 and 1 are both quite strong human relationships while 0 would be no romance.
  • Scatter story- In research methods, a scatter story is a graph with multiple dots put onto it. The dots on a scatter plot could be really close or really multiply apart. If they're close there is a high relationship and if they're spread apart there is a low correlation.
  • Survey method- In research methods, a study method is a way of learning the actions of a specific group. This is mainly done by questioning a representative test of a group in order to learn specific information about the group being surveyed.
  • Naturalistic observation- In research methods, seeing the subject in their natural habitat without controlling the situation is called naturalistic observation. This is actually the best method to try and limit the Hawthorne effect and obtain the best results.
  • Case analysis- In research methods, a research study is the comprehensive studying of a particular individual to maybe gain an improved understanding of bigger groups.
  • Descriptive figures- In research methods, descriptive statistics are used to show the data gained through research and tests. There are plenty of ways to work with descriptive reports such as mean, median, function, variability, range, standard deviation and many more. Through the use of these exact things you can coloring a picture of the info in user friendly graphics and quantities.
  • Measures of variability- Variability is an enormous part of reports and to be able to have meaningful data you must have your variability clearly displayed by using standard deviation or other measures of variability.
  • Normal curve- In research methods, the standard curve is bell designed and it represents how data is allocated. With a normal curve most scores fall near to the mean rather than on either end of the normal curve.
  • Inferential reports- In research methods, inferential information are how exactly we use data to help understand and get conclusions about the data.
  • Statistical significance- In research methods, statistical significance is the chance that the outcome of an experiment is because of chance or the impartial varying. Before a researcher commences their experiment they place their P value to establish what results would be statistically significant. For instance, if a researcher set his/her P value at (p<. 01) and the test yields results that land within that this means that there is a significantly less than 1% chance that the results were credited to chance.
  • APA Ethical Recommendations for Human being Research- In research methods, these rules protect humans from unethical or psychologically detrimental experiments. A couple of strict standards that must definitely be followed to be able to fall season within the APA ethical suggestions such as immediately debriefing the participant if you have deceived them.
  • APA Ethical Recommendations for Pet animal Research- In research methods, these suggestions protect family pets from unneeded harm from psychological tests or any unethical experiments.

Biology

  • Neuroanatomy- In biology, this is actually the study of our anatomical structure of your neurons and how our different parts of the brain make it work.
  • Neuron- In biology, a neuron is a nerve cell that creates the stressed system. Neurons send information through our body through neurotransmitters. A few examples of neurotransmitters are serotonin and dopamine.
  • Dendrites- In biology, dendrites are the branchlike ends of neurons that are responsible for receiving the information from other neurons.
  • Cell body (soma)- the soma is where in fact the impulses from the dendrites go and from the soma they are simply passed on.
  • Brain plasticity- In biology, brain plasticity identifies the brains capacity to change if part of your brain gets damaged. The human brain will use another part of the human brain to help replace the damaged part. The more aged you find the less brain plasticity you will have.
  • Myelin sheath- In biology, the Myelin sheath is a cover over your axons to help speed up the process of your neurons. Having less a myelin sheath triggers multiple sclerosis
  • Axon- In biology, the axon is the long part of a neuron that is accountable for the action probable. If you're healthy you'll have a myelin sheath covering your axon.
  • Terminal switches- In biology, terminal control keys are at the end of any neuron and are responsible for sending the signal to other neurons.
  • Neurotransmitters- in biology, neurotransmitters are a substance that passes a note through neurons. Examples of neurotransmitters are dopamine, serotonin and endorphins.
  • Synapse- In biology, the small gap in between neurons is named the synapse. The neurotransmitters must go through the synapse in order to be passed through another neuron.
  • Receptor sites- in biology, receptor sites will be the receivers of specific neurotransmitters. Receptor sites are located on the dendrites.
  • Threshold- In biology, a threshold is the amount of stimulus we need in order for us to detect the stimuli. You will find two types of thresholds for humans, the total threshold and the difference threshold.
  • Action potential- In biology, the action potential is a brief firing of a neuron. The action potential is an all or nothing at all thing if the neuron doesn't receive enough chemical signals it won't fire.
  • Neural firing- In biology, neural firing is when the neuron extends to its action potential and fires it's signal to the next neuron.
  • Excitatory neurotransmitters- in biology, excitatory neurotransmitters are like accelerators for the neurons. They increase neural firing.
  • Inhibitory neurotransmitters- In biology, inhibitory neurotransmitters are compared to brakes for neurotransmitters. The cut down neural firing.
  • Acetylcholine (ACH) - In biology, ACH is a neurotransmitter that takes on a part in our attention and arousal. ACH is positioned in both central and peripheral stressed system.
  • Dopamine- In biology, dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for movements, learning, attention and feelings. An excessive amount of dopamine is linked with schizophrenia rather than enough dopamine is associated with Parkinson's disease.
  • Heritability- In biology, Heritability is the quantity of difference in an organization or between individuals you can attribute to genetics by itself.
  • Serotonin- In biology, Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that impacts mood, hunger, rest and arousal. Too little Serotonin may cause major depression.
  • Endorphins- In biology, Endorphins are neurotransmitters which may have an capability to dampen pain and they can also control pleasure.
  • Motor Neurons (Efferent) - in biology, electric motor neurons carry messages from the mind and spinal-cord to parts of your muscles and glands.
  • Sensory Neurons (Sensory) - In biology, sensory neurons are neurons that hold information from your sensory receptors to the mind and backbone.
  • Central Nervous System- in biology, the central stressed system consists of the brain and the spinal column.
  • Spinal Cable- In biology, the spinal cord is the long pipe going down your backside that is protected by the vertebrae. The spinal cord is accountable for the transmitting of neurons between the peripheral nervous system to the central anxious system.
  • Peripheral anxious system- In biology, the Peripheral nervous system is the neurons that that connect the peripheral nervous system to the central stressed system. The peripheral nervous system is the head over the somatic and autonomic stressed system.
  • Somatic nervous system-In biology the somatic nervous system falls under the peripheral anxious system. The somatic anxious system is responsible for voluntary movement.
  • Autonomic nervous system- In biology, the autonomic nervous system is a part of the PNS and is also responsible for the regulation of internal organs and glands including the heart and soul. The Autonomic anxious system is responsible for the sympathetic and parasympathetic part of the PNS.
  • Sympathetic anxious system- In biology, the sympathetic nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic anxious system is responsible for arousal in situations like a dog baring its tooth at you.
  • Parasympathetic nervous system- In biology, the parasympathetic stressed system is under the autonomic anxious system. It is responsible for soothing the body.
  • Lesions- a lesion is a damage of muscle. A brain lesion is the devastation of part of your brain tissue. If you were to truly have a brain lesion you'll have brain destruction and loose function of part of your brain.
  • Electroencephalogram- In biology, an EEG can be an amplified recording of brain waves. In order to see the brain waves electrodes must be located on the scalp.
  • CAT or CT Scan- in neuroimaging techniques, a CT scan is some x-rays taken at various sides and put together. CT scans are a good technique for seeing brain harm.
  • MRI- In neuroimaging techniques, an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create pictures of very soft tissue. MRIs are good for showing the anatomy of any brain.
  • PET check out- In neuroimaging techniques, a PET (positron emission tomography) is a visible display of your brain activity. We are able to see which area of the brain is being used by the radioactive blood sugar that is injected into the body. This technique is good for seeing what area of the brain is being used during certain responsibilities.
  • fMRI- In neuroimaging techniques, a fMRI (Efficient MRI) is a technique that presents the blood circulation of the mind. This technique is good for showing how our brain functions.
  • Hindbrain- In brain buildings, the hindbrain is the oldest part of your brain. It offers the medulla, pons and the reticular creation. The hindbrain is accountable for our heartbeat, deep breathing, and other programmed survival functions.
  • Medulla- In brain constructions, the Medulla is the bottom of the brainstem and it handles our heartbeat and out breathing.
  • Pons- In brain framework, the Pons is the top of the brainstem that is responsible for arousal and wakefulness.
  • Cerebellum- In brain constructions, the cerebellum is located at the rear of the mind. The cerebellum is accountable for our balance and movements.
  • Midbrain- In brain buildings, the midbrain is accountable for auditory and visible information and manages eye motion and body activity.
  • Reticular formation- in brain structures, the reticular development is the part of the brainstem that regulates arousal.
  • Forebrain- In brain buildings, the forebrain is the part of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebrum.
  • Thalamus- In brain structures, the Thalamus is accountable for directing the traffic to the parts of the brain. It is located on the top of the brainstem.
  • Hypothalamus- In brain structures, the hypothalamus is in charge of eating, consuming and controlling body's temperature. The Hypothalamus is located in the limbic system.
  • Amygdala- In brain structures, the Amygdala is responsible for controlling our dread and aggression.

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