2.5. Determination of the psychological atmosphere in the family
2.5.1. Diagnosis of interpersonal relationships using the questionnaire "Interpersonal Diagnosis"
The method for investigating the interpersonal behavior of adults was created in 1954 by T. Leary, G. Leforge, R. Sazek as a result of a broadly oriented study of a large number of specialists dealing with interpersonal aspects of the personality. According to the authors, the interpersonal manifestations of the individual are aimed at reducing anxiety and represent a multilevel grid. The person is constantly in contact with other people, and his interpersonal behavior can be classified but 16 interpersonal variables, located in a circle:
A - dominant
- owns, dominates, orders (causes obedience), manages, directs;
In - the egocentric
- boasts, arrogant, self-satisfied, exhibitionistic, acts confidently, independently;
C - rival
- exploits, rejects, refuses (causes mistrust), competes, breaks through;
D - aggressive
- blaming, sarcastic, unflattering (causes passive resistance), decisive;
E - energetic
- attacks, acts unfriendly (causes enemy behavior), open, direct;
F - Critical
- Complains, demonstrates embittered behavior (causes punishment), rightly and fairly rebels, unusual;
C - suspicious
- distrustful, suspicious, considers himself circumvented (causes unfriendly command), shows reasonable vigilance and skepticism;
- condemns himself, anxious, guilty behavior,
does not take into account itself (causes daring behavior),
acts shyly, sensitively, modestly
- without own opinion, submits, weak-willed behavior (causes management), obeys and honestly performs its duties;
J is a conformal
- conformal, compliant, too considerate, courteous acts too (requires advice and guidance), admires and takes into account the position of others;
To - hyperconformal
- adjoins, begs for help, dependent, agrees with everyone (calls for help), trusts, asks for help;
/. - cooperative
- a compromise, always agrees, adheres to conventions (causes tenderness), cooperates, takes part, agrees,
- requires a friendly attitude (causes love), demonstrates cute, friendly behavior;
- soft, too emotional behavior (causes a positive attitude), shows sympathy, supports, acts gently;
About - Responsible
- Obtrusively takes over responsibility (causes trust), helps, offers, gives;
P - autocratic
- obsessively seeking and requires respect, pedantic, dogmatic (causes respect), rules, advises, teaches.
Timothy Leary gives five levels of analysis of the interpersonal behavior of the individual. Level I, II and V are especially significant. Level I contains the observed behavior of people, i.e. behavior based on the assessment of others; level II - an assessment of one's own interpersonal behavior or the evaluation of close people: father, mother, partner, spouse, etc. Level V reflects the individual's moral profile, his ideal "I" through the ideal description system.
Studies have shown that all 16 factors are related to the "dominance-subordination" factors. and "friendliness - hostility". This led to the conclusion that all interpersonal factors depend on the four listed. Their combination determines the individual's place on the circle, divided into four quarters with the help of the vertical axis (dominance-subordination) and the horizontal axis (friendliness-hostility).
Individual interpersonal factors are described by the authors in three different aspects (Figure 2.1):
• inner circle - adaptive behavior
• The average circle is the type of behavior caused by other people;
• The outer circle - extreme trends.
Fig. 2.1. Interpersonal behavior factors
The numbers in the figure indicate:
1- Striving to guide, guide, lead;
2 - self-confidence, independence;
3 - the desire to compete, assertiveness;
4 - aggressiveness, determination;
5 - sincerity, straightforwardness, criticality
6 - realism, propensity to justify, resent, act unconventionally;
7 - realism, caution, skepticism;
8 - caution, sensitivity, modesty;
9 - the propensity to fulfill other people's duties, obey;
10 - respect, inclination to admiration, submission;
11 - the inclination to ask advice, offer help, credulity;
12 - the propensity to agree, cooperate, participate in common affairs;
13 - the desire to love, friendliness;
14 - the desire to support, kindness, a tendency to show sympathy;
15 - the desire to help, something to offer, give back;
16 - the desire to conduct business, advise, teach;
17 - the desire for domination, the manifestation of the features of the master, the leader;
18 - boastfulness, arrogance, narcissism, self-prediction;
19 - the desire to exploit, reject, deny;
20 - the desire to punish, punish, offend, sarcastic;
21 - the desire to show unfriendly actions, aggressiveness;
22 - the desire to justify, showing cruelty, discontent;
23 - the desire to offend, to act suspiciously, incredulously;
24 - anxiety, self-deprecation, self-condemnation, guilt;
25 - subordination, weak character;
26 - obedience, subordination, superiority
27 - faithfulness, dependence, need for help;
28 - readiness to compromise, to agree to any conditions;
29 - the need for friendly manifestations on the part of others, incontinence in deeds;
30 - compassion, responsiveness, the manifestation of boundless love;
31 - unconditional acceptance of responsibility, readiness to act in extreme conditions;
32 - the desire to impose respect for yourself; pedantry, dogmatic
It was suggested that the relationship between the two variables is a downward function of the distance between them on the circle. The sum of scores for individual factors is translated into an index where the factors/^ (vertical axis) and /M (horizontal axis) dominate. The distance from the middle of the circle to the obtained indices indicates the adaptability or low adaptivity of interpersonal behavior. Special formulas determine the indices for these two main axes:
1. Domination (vertical factor) = AR - H1 + 0.7 (BC +
+ lgo-ur - th;
2. Friendliness (horizontal factor) = - OE + 0.7 (N0 +
+ UAG-go - # with;.
Individual types of interpersonal behavior can be characterized not only by the 16-factor system. For clinical and research purposes, it is convenient to summarize the interpersonal personality repertoire into eight broader descriptive categories obtained by combining adjacent characteristics. To do this, the two neighboring factors were combined into one, resulting in the eight categories sought (Figure 2.2). This allows us to characterize behavior both from the point of view of interpersonal manifestations and from the point of view of the reactions that this type of behavior causes.
Fig. 2.2. Descriptive categories of interpersonal behavior
An autocratic person with the code AP, including A (obsessive dominance) and Р (universally recognized success), will have the following typical manifestations: power, power and ambition. In an adaptive form, he displays energetic, competent behavior and authority based on the abilities of a person; in extreme form - autocratic, dictatorial and pedantic behavior, manic manifestations. This type causes the behavior of W (letters denote the type of behavior that corresponds to the sector in the circle).
The egocentric personality is the code BC (self-sufficient self-assertion), where B- C- self-assertion as a rivalry. Expressive orientation to yourself, self-esteem, self-satisfaction, self-confidence. In an adaptive form, he manifests independence and faith in his own strength; in extreme form - selfish behavior, egocentrism, exhibitionism, elevating oneself above the others. Causes behavior like GHIJ.
Aggressive personality - code DE (aggressiveness and hostility) includes factors: D- non-strict severity, E- brusque criticality. It is characterized by hostile aggressiveness, strictness in interpersonal relations. In adaptive form, this can be acceptable manifestations of rigidity, sharpness, taking into account the situation. A mild-adaptive form represents a rigid rigid, insensitive behavior without regard for the situation, typical primarily for psychopaths. This type causes the behavior of PGH.
Mistrustful personality - code FG (incredulous immunity), factors: F- scrupulous doubt, G- stubborn suspicion. People of this type are characterized by a suspicious attitude towards the social environment and distance in relation to others. In adaptive form, we mean an acceptable critical approach to social relations. The maladaptive form includes suspicious, critical behavior, rejection of social norms, feelings of disappointment, alienation. Causes behavior BCD,
Sublime personality is the code HI (submissivity), where H- modest timidity,/- passive. It differs modesty, weakness, even self-abasement. Modesty, timidity, emotional restraint, ability to obey are manifested in adaptive form; in maloadaptivnoy form - passive self-abasement, weakness, hypersubmission without regard to the situation. Causes BC and DE behavior
Hyperconformal personality - code/A ^ weak-willed dependence), where J - admiration, /strong> anxious trust. Characteristic manifestations of dependent conformance, softness, demand and expectation of help and advice. In adaptive form - trust and admiration, adequate situations; in maloadaptive - complete dependence, lack of manifestations of independence, hostility and power. They behave fearfully and helplessly. Causes the behavior of AP and N0.
The hyper-affiliated person - LM (affiliation), where L - trustful cooperative, M- friendly love. For such people are characterized by a friendly style of communication and adjacency to others. Adaptive form - extroverted friendly behavior, the desire to cooperate, the propensity to conformism, the preference for good social relations. A mildly adaptive form is a stereotypically pleasant, loving behavior without regard to the situation: the desire to satisfy the demands of others, to be positive and to maintain positive attitudes. Causes the behavior of MI.
Hyperprotective personality - N0 (protective, patronage), where too much delicacy. About - altruistic responsibility. Such people are reasonable, successful, delicate, mature, independent and strong. Adaptive form is responsible, delicate behavior, preferring a friendly way of communication, helping others, striving to establish emotional contact. This is a positive social type of personality. A mild-adaptive form is a rigid repetition of typical forms of behavior without regard to the situation, too much activity towards others, an inadequate desire to take responsibility for others. Causes LH behavior.
In the final version, the method contains 128 evaluation characteristics, of which eight are always associated with one of the 16 factors in such a way that they are ordered in ascending order, reflecting the low, moderate, high and extreme intensity of this behavior. In practice, the eight mentioned above interpersonal variables with polar factors of dominance-submissivity and hostility-affiliations are most often used (Figure 2.3, a, b).
Fig. 2.3, a. The interpersonal diagnostic profile of a self-torturing subject
Fig. 2.3, b. The interpersonal personality profile of an autocratic subject
PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING a RESEARCH
For the study, you need a test notebook, a form for recording answers and a protocol. Respondents on the instructions mark the answers in the form. They can evaluate the behavior of others through observations (level I), themselves or others according to the instruction (level II) and their ideal (level V).
It takes 10-15 minutes to complete the questionnaire (one person's evaluation). You can process the results in several ways. In this case, the data is recorded in the protocol of the individual designated circles, which allows you to determine the type of person, and also to compare information on individual levels (for example, I - father "," ideal I etc).
Psychometric properties have been tested in several ways. Within the definition of homogeneity of tasks, the popularity of the questions was checked. As a result, it turned out that the popularity of issues is monotonously decreasing. The ratio between the question and the octane index was determined by counting the biserial correlation coefficient, whose value fluctuates in the range 0.12-0.61, and basically assumes the mean value. The social desirability of questions was determined by comparing the estimates of individual characteristics and properties of people on a five-point scale. Correlations for individual factors and octants assumed a value of 0, 993 to 0, 999. The relationship between the acceptance of a question and its social desirability is more pronounced at level V (where only 20% of the correlation coefficients were below the level of statistical significance) than at level II (where 39% of correlations were below the level of statistical significance).
Coefficients of internal consistency for factors at level II take values from 0.35 to 0.72, and at level V - from 0.16 to 0.66; for individual octants at level II - from 0.62 to 0.75, at level V - from 0.46 to 0.74. Stability in time (repeated presentation after 10 days) was confirmed by correlation coefficients, which took the value for individual factors from 0.63 to 0.81, and for octants - from 0.69 to 0.80. The correlation matrix, reflecting the relationship between this method and the 16PF Kettel questionnaire, showed that about 30% of the correlations are at a level of statistical significance.
Verification of the circular diagnostic model confirmed (with some deviations) the circular arrangement of interpersonal variables. The results of the factor analysis also confirmed the existence of two orthogonal factors (DOM and LOW).
The method can be successfully used to analyze the social environment, groups of equal nature and for personality analysis in group or individual psychotherapy. There is a positive experience of applying the method in practice (mainly in the clinic, as well as in labor collectives) and in scientific research.
T. LIRY'S SURVEYOR
1. He is able to like.
2. Impresses others.
3. He is able to dispose, order.
4. He knows how to insist on his own.
5. Has a sense of dignity.
7. He is able to take care of himself.
8. Can show indifference.
9. Can be severe.
10. Strict, but fair.
11. Can be sincere.
12. Critical to others.
13. Loves to cry.
14. Often sad.
15. Is able to show disbelief.
16. Often disappointed.
17. Is able to be critical of himself.
18. Is able to admit its wrong.
19. Willingly obeys.
22. Admiring and prone to imitation.
24. Seeking approval.
25. Capable of cooperation and mutual assistance.
26. Strives to get along with others.
28. Attentive and affectionate.
31. Responsive to calls for help.
33. Is able to cause admiration.
34. Enjoys the respect of others.
35. Has the talent of a leader.
36. Loves responsibility.
37. I am confident in myself.
38. Self-confident and assertive.
39. Business and practical.
41. Resistant and stubborn, where necessary.
42. Unrelenting, but impartial.
44. Clear and straightforward.
45. He does not tolerate being commanded.
47. It's hard to impress him.
48. Resolute, scrupulous.
49. Easily embarrassed.
53. Often resorts to the help of others.
54. Very revered by the authorities.
55. Willingly accepts advice.
56. Trusting and seeking to please others.
57. Always kind in the way.
58. Appreciates the opinions of others.
59. Sociable and livable.
61. Good, inspiring confidence.
62. Gentle and kind hearted.
63. Likes to take care of others.
65. Likes to give advice.
66. Makes an impression of significance.
70. Arrogant and self-righteous.
71. He thinks only of himself.
73. Intolerant to the mistakes of others.
76. Often unfriendly.
77. Pissed off.
78. The complainant.
80. Remembers for a long time resentment.
81. Prone to self-flagellation.
85. Dependent, not dependent.
86. Likes to obey.
87. Allows others to make decisions.
88. It easily falls into a mess.
89. Easily influenced by friends.
90. I'm ready to trust anyone.
91. It is indisputable to all indiscriminately.
92. He sympathizes with everyone.
93. Forgive everything.
94. Overflowing with excessive sympathy.
95. Generous and tolerant of shortcomings.
96. Strives to help everyone.
97. Strives for success.
98. She expects admiration from everyone.
99. Dispatched by others.
101. Refers to others with a sense of superiority.
104. Cold, stale.
105. Stinging, mocking.
106. Angry, cruel.
107. Often angry.
108. Insensible, indifferent.
110. Infused with the spirit of contradiction.
112. Mistrustful and suspicious.
117. Almost no one objects.
119. Likes to be cared for.
120. Excessively trusting.
121. Strives to get everyone's location.
122. He agrees with everyone.
123. Always with everyone friendly.
124. He loves everyone.
125. Too condescending to others.
126. He tries to console everyone.
127. Cares for others to the detriment of themselves.
128. It spoils people with excessive kindness.
The response form is a table consisting of four lines of 32 numbers each. In such a table, the answers for each factor are grouped into a microarray (the 1st and 8th factors are listed), which facilitates the calculation of the score without using stencils.
The scores obtained are transferred to the diagram, while the distance from the center of the circle corresponds to the number of points in the octant (the minimum value is 0, the maximum is 16). The ends of the vectors unite and form a profile reflecting the idea of the person being evaluated. The outlined space is shaded. A separate diagram is constructed for each view.
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