Developing education in adolescence. Project "Teenage School
The basics of the project "Teenage School"
Adolescence in the general education system takes a special place. First of all, it is necessary to understand what is the "adolescent age"? Today in psychology there are different ideas about this age. According to our hypothesis, adolescence is not yet fully formed, now only its formation is taking place. In the culture of education, there is a "gap" between junior schoolchildren who diligently comprehend the basics of knowledge, and young men who are part of the chosen profession have not yet laid off, nor did they crystallize the cultural forms of living of this time that would lead to a normal entry into adulthood in most cases. Such forms so far only "happen", and then the teenager lives age, safely and in time overcoming development crises. But often they "do not happen", and at best a person lives on with the unresolved problems of adolescence, and at worst - falls into the "risk group" or simply ends his life.
In this sense, the project "Teenage School is based on hypothetical representations about adolescence, the norm of age development, psychological age neoplasms. These hypotheses were formulated in the works of LS Vygotsky, DB El'konin, VV Davydov, VV Repkin, KN Polivanova, VA Petrovsky, GA Tsukerman, A. L Wenger, VV Bashev, PA Sergomanov and other psychologists working in the vein of the cultural and historical theory of Vygotsky and the activity approach.
Such hypothetical representations include the following:
1) DB Elkonin's presentation that the junior schoolchild's educational activity toward adolescence "turns it around". The subject of the attention of a teenager is himself. He seeks answers to questions: what can I and what can not; what I really want; where I myself, that in me is mine;
2) the realization of this attention in the specific interests and characteristics of the adolescent: there is interest in one's own personality; setting on vast spatial and temporal scales, which become more important than current, today's ("dominant distance", LS Vygotsky);
3) the emergence of the desire for the unknown, risky, adventure, heroism, the test of oneself. There is resistance, the desire for strong-willed efforts. All these features characterize the activity of the adolescent, aimed at building the image of himself in the world (VA Petrovsky). This activity KN Polivanov calls "social experimentation";
4) the ideas (images of action) of the teenager are initially fuzzy, vague, super-scaled and uncritical. Trying to implement them, he encounters the inconsistency of his ideas about himself and the world with the real state of affairs. In this conflict, the adolescent is gradually beginning to realize the boundaries of his own adulthood, the degree of independence and responsibility ("the feeling of adulthood", DB Elkonin, T. Dragunova).The productive completion of adolescence occurs with the "discovery of oneself and the world", with the emergence of the ability to consciously, initiatively and responsibly build its action in the world, based not only on the vision of one's own action, irrespective of the possibility of its realization, but also taking into account the relationship of the world to my action. "
What preliminary pedagogical conclusions can be drawn from these considerations?
1. First of all, a special organization of the transitional stage of education is needed, which precedes the beginning of the adolescent crisis. Already in the transition period (10-12 years), students should be able to feel real "adults" (through different-age cooperation and special methods of organizing control and evaluation actions). Adults should create a variety of situations in which younger adolescents could feel both their own "adulthood" and the inadequacy of their abilities, somehow delineating the boundaries of their "adulthood."
2. In a teenage school, the relationship between teachers and students should be changed towards expanding the sphere of self-reliance (including, educational independence) of students. These changes should concern not only the nature of the requirements of adolescents for adolescents, control, evaluation, but also expand the field of opportunities for proactive action by adolescents. At the same time, the expansion and complication of duties, the increase in the requirements for accountability should be an expression of a new attitude towards adolescents as adults.
3. In addition to building special relations between adults and students, an important place should be occupied by the organization peer communication , which can be promoted by special forms (for example, design, research) of the organization of learning.
4. At this age, teaching should be only one of the types of socially significant activities that are crucial for mental development.
5. The sphere of teaching (as well as other spheres of a teenager's life) should become a meeting place for the ideas of his actions with their realization, a place of social experimentation that allows one to feel the limits of action and its possibilities. The child must learn to act according to his own plan, in accordance with the goals set independently, finding ways to implement his project (tasks).
6. Teaching a teenager should be aimed at building an image of one's own action in the world, and therefore, building a own world picture and own position .
These initial considerations formed the basis of the project "Teenage School".