Development of children's drawing - Child psychology

Development of children's drawings

One can not help but mention that Piaget specifically considered the development of children's drawings as one of the directions of intellectual development. He believed that the child's drawing is a form of symbolic reflection of reality by the child. In the development of the picture, Piaget distinguished several stages. The first stage (lasting from one to two years) can be called pre-imaginary (or the stage of the karakul), when the child does not actually depict anything, but simply leaves traces, performing objective actions. By the end of this stage, the child begins to visually control the drawing process. Then the child accidentally learns in the scribbles the objects familiar to him, i.e. gives the figure its symbolic meaning.

At the second stage (from two and a half to three years to five hundred years), the child goes to the imitating figure. Now the preschooler wants to depict any particular object. First, there are drawings, saturated with circles (reminiscent of a human face), then - straight lines, other geometric shapes (reflecting objects around the child). In the drawing, dynamic relationships unfold ( it jumps, and it goes ). Although the drawing on the technique is also imperfect, it has a completely different meaning for the artist. This stage of development is completed in about five to six years, when the child moves to the so-called "believable images". This period is characterized by "intellectual realism": the main features of the model are depicted, but the visual perspective is not taken into account. For example, a person seen in the profile will have a second eye, because a person has two eyes, or a rider in addition to his visible leg will have a leg that can be seen through the horse. Similarly, you can see the potatoes in the ground where it is located, or food in the human stomach. In addition, at this stage the images are disproportionate (for example, the machine can be drawn above the house, etc.).

If at the previous stage the child was more likely to depict what he knows about the object, then at the age of eight or nine the image becomes more realistic and plastic. There is a transition to "visual (visual) realism". Now only what is visible to the observer from one perspective is depicted. The profile now has one eye, as seen from the side, and the hidden parts of the object are now not represented. Also, the objects in the background are shown smaller in size (as if going to the horizon line) with respect to the objects in the foreground. The objects in the figure are organized in accordance with the general plan (coordinate axes) and with geometric proportions. However, such changes are accompanied by the presence of a contour image (no transmission of light and shade).

If from the position of J. Piaget the children's figure is imperfect, since it is subject to imperfect logic, then in the Gestalt theory the children's figure, like the picture of a mature artist, has a clear structure, and therefore can be analyzed on a par with it. According to the American psychologist R. Arnheim, the child's drawing should not be evaluated according to the degree of compliance with the "realism principle", but by the extent to which the logic of the deployment of the representation is expressed.

Karl Gustav Jung belongs to the discovery of the fact that the images that arise in the minds of people on different continents are the same. Kellogg, a kindergarten worker in San Francisco, enthusiastic about this discovery, collected more than 200,000 children's drawings from 14 countries for several decades and was convinced of the validity of the judgments of the Swiss psychiatrist. Analysis of the drawings allowed her to confidently state the presence of a sufficiently high level of visual development in children at the age of two. Interestingly in this connection, one of the hypotheses of such a generality. As we have already pointed out, R. Arnheim believed that the development of the drawing is based on biological causes. When M. Knoll got acquainted with the collection of drawings of children collected by R. Kellogg, he was surprised that the patterns of children's paintings up to three years correspond to the structure of phosphenes observed by adults.

Modern research shows that with appropriate instruction preschoolers significantly improve their images. Thus, the schematic nature of the image, interpreted in Piaget's logic as a sign of imperfection of the child's intellect, is interpreted as an attempt of the preschool child to depict the essential. Therefore, children's drawings can be viewed as a result of preferences in the image of children's own knowledge in a special way, as well as technical imperfection of the fulfillment of the conceived (it should be pointed out that the arbitrariness of preschoolers is insufficient, which is expressed in a lack of space for "irrelevant" details). It should be noted that the detailed and realistic images that are present in mentally retarded preschool children who reach heights in drawing can not always indicate a general high level of intellectual development.

thematic pictures

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