Development of psychological and pedagogical practice, Historical...

Development of psychological and pedagogical practice

As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• The idea of ​​psychological and pedagogical activity as an anthropological practice of the emergence of the human in man;

• features of the emergence and development of psychological practice in society;

• the concept of psychotechnics, the psychotechnical philosophy of practice;

• directions and methods of psychological and pedagogical practice;

• areas of application of psychological and pedagogical knowledge;

be able to

• Analyze various methods of psychological and pedagogical practice from the standpoint of the psychotechnical paradigm;

• determine the conformity of the methods of psychological and pedagogical practice with modern psychological and pedagogical directions;

• To be guided in the peculiarities of the professional psychological and pedagogical sphere of the activity of the specialist - the psychologist of education;


• the skills of analyzing the essence of psychological and pedagogical activity as anthropological practice of the emergence of the human in man;

• the skills of reflecting the content of methods and directions of psychological and pedagogical activity.

Historical and social dimension of development

The request (or need) for psychological help and knowledge at different stages of the development of society has always existed, but was formulated and understood in different ways.

In ancient cultures, thinkers and worshipers tried to define values, the goals of human existence, its connection with the Divine, the connection of the Soul and the Body. The request was "offset": i.e. implied the practice of teaching, religious humility or coexistence with other people.

In the philosophical and religious teachings of the East and West, the path to human cognition was determined by cultural and anthropological attitudes: the value of an individual in a group, or the value of group coexistence; cognition of oneself as the discovery in oneself of "extra-, transcendental ideas", religious asceticism in the Western cultural tradition, or reflexive self-contemplation in Eastern religious practices.

The request for psychological knowledge and, accordingly, psychological assistance was realized in various cultural and anthropological practices, most acute in the crisis stages of the existence of cultures and communities.

Anthropological Practices

Psychological practice as a phenomenon of the modern cultural and historical situation did not occur by chance. Psychological knowledge, taking its origins from mystical, philosophical and religious, sociocultural knowledge, developed and applied in religion, philosophy, art, medicine, pedagogy, that is, in different We can say that psychological practice is one of the anthropological practices and is somehow connected with the rest.

What is anthropological practice? What kinds of it exist in modern culture? What are its features?

Anthropological practice is a sociocultural spiritual practice. Anthropological practice can be defined as the activity of a subject whose goal is, in the words of VI Slobodchikov, the emergence of a truly human form in him, where the main result must be the development of a person in all his spiritually-psychic dimensions, a person - as a viable individual, as a subject of his own life and activity, as a person in a meeting with Others.

For example, such anthropological practices are science, religion, education, medicine, art. In all these types of human activity, the subject changes, and it is these subjective psychological changes that are an indispensable component of the target state, the result of practice.

M. Foucault points to two types of socio-anthropological techniques that exist in the context of socio-cultural anthropological practices:

1) the techniques of production and communication, which appear as techniques of subordination (they include prison, school, medicine):

2) the techniques of self, which allow the individuals themselves to carry out operations on their body, soul and mind; they are in a sense the practice of freedom, the techniques of creating subjectivity - the space of the private, in the language of psychology - self-consciousness or self.

(See Assignment 1 to Chapter 2.)

This position may be subject to discussion, but for us it is important that in these anthropological practices the change in subjectivity and subjectivity of a person is significant, and that their subject is endowed with a different degree of freedom and responsibility for self-change. Consider these practices, as anthropological, in more detail.

In science, as an anthropological practice, the goal is to obtain new knowledge with the help of the norms of the scientific method built according to the centuries worked. In the final analysis, scientific activity is aimed at changing the person's perception of the surrounding world (natural sciences) and about him himself in this world (humanities).

In medicine, as an anthropological practice, the goal (mission) is to take care of the health of the human body, cognition of individual and age-related changes in the body; definition of techniques (methods, conditions, etc.) for maintaining it in a healthy state.

The mission of education as an anthropological practice - the adaptation of a person to solve various life problems - in the practical transformation of the external world and its own inner world.

Education, as a social-anthropological practice, should primarily care not for the production of unified artists in accordance with the social order, but about developing the potential of the student's personality. As such universal human capabilities (anthropology) of modern personal potential can be considered:

- reflection and understanding;

- techniques of actions and communications;

- the possibilities of interpretation and thinking;

- the ability of self-determination in relation to culture and society;

- goal-setting and socio-cultural personification;

- the ability of the organization, self-organization, organization of knowledge systems.

From this list it is obvious that pedagogy as anthropological practice is impossible without a deep knowledge of psychological science, without the psychological accompaniment of the teacher and his students.

The basic paradox of educational activity, as LF Obukhova writes, is that this activity is directed toward the outside world, but its subject itself changes in it. "The subject of changes in educational activity first becomes ... the subject himself, carrying out this activity. Educational activity is such an activity that turns the child to itself, requires reflection, an assessment of "what I was" and "what became". The process of own change is allocated to the subject as a new subject. The most important thing in educational activity is a person turning to himself ... & quot ;. When in different audiences, especially in youth, the question is asked about the methods of self-development, it is no accident that in the first place one remembers about education and training.

Changing oneself becomes the deep foundation of religious, spiritual practices, with which the practice of art is also closely related. It is not by chance that religious themes occupy the central place in art for thousands of years of human history. Music, painting, sculpture, dance - art emerged as a way of self-expression of the personality (and through this - the knowledge of oneself by man) and as an indispensable component of traditions, rituals and religious cults.

Philosophy, as a scientific spiritual practice, tries to understand and know a person, the phenomena of spirituality and wisdom. Unlike philosophy, in religion a person knows himself - intuitively, and the main thing here is not in knowing, but in experiencing and building oneself in accordance with religious rules and practices. Religion and philosophy as spiritual practices in their tasks were the closest ideologically to psychological practice. The philosophy of existence - existential philosophy - gave grounds for the emergence and development of a whole field of psychotherapy, existential psychotherapy, which includes several psychotherapeutic schools: existential analysis, logotherapy, Lithuanian and United States schools of existential psychotherapy, dasain analysis, American schools of existential psychotherapy.

Psychological practice as anthropological also refers to spiritual practices, practices of oneself. Below we will examine in more detail the philosophical foundations of this practice. It is also a separate and important task for any professional in the field of psychological practice to define its boundaries - relations with other anthropological practices, general and distinct, philosophical and spiritual foundations of the techniques used.

(See task 2 to chapter 2.)

Above were listed types of anthropological practices. But cultural anthropological practices are a constantly changing reality. This list is constantly being supplemented and expanded by new practices arising in the context and at the interface. And in every period of history this or that practice becomes especially "fashionable" - popular in different societies, countries. For example, throughout the XX century. psychological practice was the most fashionable in Western civilization, but already in its place in the XXI century. other, new are coming.

Here are examples of such new The variants of practices that occurred at the junction of the "old" traditional cultural anthropological practices:

- contact (dance-motor) improvisation

- performance - fine, theatrical;

- online diaries in which the author describes his own experiences in difficult life circumstances, traveling and practicing spiritual practices. Coping with one's own critical situation (for example, experiencing divorce, death of loved ones, fear of losing one's job) becomes the goal of traveling as an anthropological spiritual practice, which includes: obtaining new aesthetic impressions, communicating with new people, attending religious practices, prayer. One of such diaries featured a feature film "Eat, Pray, Love."

Contact improvisation is a dance in which improvisation is built around the point of contact with a partner. Contact improvisation is a form of free dance.

Performance (English performance) - performance, presentation. Public creation of the Artifact but the principle of synthesis of art and artlessness, which does not require special professional skills and does not claim to be longevity. Its aesthetic specificity is the emphasis on the primacy and self-sufficiency of the creative act as an artistic super task - the assertion of the identity of the creator.

(See Task 3.)

So, psychological practice as anthropological, as spiritual practice, is a practice of self. What kind of practice is it, how should it be understood, what cultural grounds does it have and what are the conditions for its realization?

Practice yourself as a scientific category was introduced into the theoretical philosophical field of M. Foucault. After him SS Horuzhy defines anthropological spiritual practice precisely as a practice of himself.

Many young men and women are interested in psychology, psychological practice in order to know themselves to engage in self-development. Most often they can not explain clearly enough what they mean by self-knowledge and self-development. But it is obvious that this is experienced in vague desires as getting some spiritual experience - practice oneself, and as some kind of compulsion in the life of a person - care for oneself. If the young (and not very) a person begins to want to take care of himself, to recognize himself - this is a sign of born subjectness.

Experienced and attentive psychologist-consultants to such a request - the desire for self-development as care for themselves, will necessarily ask the client: who is this self & quot ;, which you need to take care of?

For a young psychologist, questions: "How should this self-care practice be organized, what are the cultural traditions of this care?" are not idle philosophical reflections, but an important task of professional development.

( See task 4 to chapter 2.)

Taking care of yourself is not a concept invented by them, it is a historical concept: in each epoch there were ideas about how to take care of oneself. The practice of self can only exist in the community, which has rules that determine how to extract, store and transmit the true experience of practice. Here, thus, the horizon is individual and the horizon is social, conciliar; Anthropological practice is the duality of these horizons. On the one hand, it is about the practice that each goes for itself in complete self-immersion, in the maximum concentration on its inner content. But, on the other hand, this purely individual practice is possible only due to the fact that there is a spiritual community that makes up the historical tradition. Without it, it is impossible to organize and organize your experience. This tradition was formed over a millennium, then it spread by distribution, formed a network of branches and continued to exist in these branches until our days.

Modern trends of psychological practice, one way or another, reveal its connections with the ancestors - the spiritual traditions of philosophy, religion, medicine - and the prerequisites for its emergence.

Let's try to understand these prerequisites in more detail.

The concept of taking care of yourself is taken from the arsenal of ancient culture. Michel Foucault always stressed that taking care of yourself is basically an anthropological complex. The stem of this complex forms a certain set in relation to itself, in relation to others and in relation to the world.

Taking care of yourself has two mandatory conditions:

- First, you need to take your view from the outside and draw it to yourself, respectively, to change the observation of the external world to observe yourself. Keep track of what's going on in yourself;

- Secondly, care for yourself should be realized in the practice of yourself. The practice of self can be regarded as an anthropological core of caring for itself, and taking care of oneself extends the practice of itself to some holistic, cultural and social strategy.

And what does it mean - yourself? What do you need to know yourself? What is the subject? What characteristics of this subject should be noted in yourself?

M. Foucault identified three models of practices of himself, which in the history of the West are associated with the replacement of three large formations: the Platonic model of the era of classical antiquity - V-IV cc. BC, the center of gravity of which is remembering. The second model is Hellenistic, where everything is built on the relation to itself as an end in itself. And the Christian model based on exegesis of self and self-denial.

Considering these models following M. Foucault, S.S. Khoruzha denotes one of the main dimensions that goes into the practice of oneself: "the other". The primary model, why it turns out to be needed "another", is the pedagogical model. The disciple needs a teacher. In classical antiquity this discourse of the "other" can be considered to have a pedagogical nature, and already in the Hellenistic formation, and even more so in the Christian, it turned out that pedagogy for itself is not enough for practice. The place of pedagogy came up with what he calls the completely natural term psychogygics. What other " - this erection, the ascent of the soul, the inner world of the subject in the work of the practice of self, i.e. psychotherapy is required here. Only in classical antiquity could think that it was enough to be a pedagogue, it became clear that it was not enough.

Pedagogy as an anthropological practice seeks to develop a person in accordance with socio-cultural norms, moral and ethical principles. Socialization of the child is the most often sounding goal of pedagogical practice. But for practice, this is not enough: in the educational process, there should be a formation of the student's subjectivity, interaction and mutual development of the teacher and student. This is written by VI Slobodchikov, one of the brightest representatives of psychological anthropology, the leading scientist in the field of educational psychology.

In order for pedagogy as practice to become a psychology, a truly anthropological practice, it must meet certain requirements.

1. In existing teaching-learning technologies, the most important mechanism of inversion - reflection on oneself, on self-education, on "completion" should be present. itself.

2. Humanitarian-anthropological approach in education, which holds the fullness of human reality in its horizontal and vertical dimensions. In anthropologically oriented education, speech should not be about the formation of disparate knowledge, skills, abilities, competencies, but about the formation of man himself, about the emergence of a truly human form in him, where the main educational result should be the development of man in all his spiritual-mental-physical dimensions .

3. An important aspect of the anthropological practice of education is the position of the teacher: when the teacher purposefully, deliberately and consciously begins to build a child-adult co-existential community - as the actual subject of co-distributed educational activities. The teacher becomes here the dialogical Other, without which the birth of the Person is impossible.

The genuine practice itself, according to M. Foucault, suggests several principles. The first principle is the unbundling of ethics from all social and legal restrictions, and the second, on the contrary, is just as complete a link to aesthetics. And this binding is asserted persistently and, it can be said, defiantly - "there is no ethics, except aesthetics". The third principle is disengagement. Disengagement with such practices practitioners themselves, who want to decipher themselves, want to disassemble a person. To decipher oneself, Christianity desires, and deciphering itself desires and psychoanalysis too. The aesthetics of existence is based on the refusal to decipher itself, it claims not to decipher itself, but to cultivate oneself. It is necessary to isolate a certain nucleus of itself and cultivate it by all means and means. Thus, the practice of self-knowledge is "to decipher itself in such a way that it is incomprehensible". It is more important not only to establish causal relationships, but to get a new spiritual experience about yourself, about your abilities and limitations.

In conclusion of the conversation about the practice of self as an anthropological spiritual practice, it is necessary to mention religious practices: each religion assumes as an obligatory component of faith involvement in religious spiritual practice. In Buddhism, the practice of working with consciousness, i.e. meditation, in Hinduism - the practice of yoga, in Christianity - Hesychasm. Boles ancient analogues of spiritual religious practices are esoteric, superstition as a manifestation of the syncretic "primitive" consciousness.

Many professional psychologists find themselves involved in spiritual religious practices. It is difficult to imagine a psychologist who is an atheist. Involvement in psychological practice as a spiritual automatically leads to the fact that the psychologist faces a choice of the worldview system or the need to determine his own system of views, beliefs. And since, as mentioned above, spiritual practice is always based on cultural tradition, the psychologist most often chooses that spiritual and religious practice that is closest to his own values ​​and semantic attitudes.

I need to say a few words about how religious spiritual practices and psychotechnics are used in psychological practice. Unfortunately, psychologists do not always realize the origins of their own methods and methods in cultural religious practices.

Meditation as a psychotechnical change in the state of consciousness is one of the leading in Buddhism. In the translation into United States, meditation means concentration, meditation. The essence of meditation from the point of view of a practical psychologist is: the ability to realize oneself, one's own thoughts, feelings, emotional states and the ability to keep in the position of the "internal observer", the ability to disagree. It is from this position of the "internal observer" it is possible not only to realize oneself, but also to manage oneself. When you read the descriptions of the experience of meditation in Buddhism or asceticism of first external and then internal silence, many analogies are guessed with the techniques of relaxation, hypnosis, and, more widely, self-regulation used in psychological practice. It is this position of the observer, with a responsible attitude towards himself, with the search for his own reasons for the difficulties that are occurring, that psychological consultants call the client's position. Meditation and its variant - visualization are quite common methods of psychological practice.

Awareness of oneself through body, movement, tension and relaxation is characteristic of the practice of yoga adopted in Buddhism and Hinduism. The human body is complex and unique, because it has not only a physiological, but also a sociocultural, psychological nature. They say: "The body is the temple of the soul." The concept of the body is equivalent to the concept of the body. You can kiss the body, but phenomenologically it is impossible to kiss the body. The body is very similar to the word integer & quot ;. A kiss is like a return to something of wholeness, integrity. In his bodily image, a person appears as a whole - a body-soul-spiritual being. Born in a physical body, a person (along with his significant "others") throughout his life forms his psychological body: through touch, exploration, aesthetic attitude. The problem of the psychological body during periods of age crises is especially aggravated. Yoga, as the practice of working with the soul through the body, is a wide system of related exercises and technologies of working with the body, including nutrition, hygiene. But in yoga the movement is meaningful, symbolic. Like Indian dances, where every gesture is read as a word in a sentence, every exercise in yoga is an element in the system of the life philosophy of yoga. In psychological practice, there are whole areas of psychotherapy, where the basis is coping with psychological problems through bodily experiences, movement, massage is a body-oriented psychotherapy, dance-motor psychotherapy.

In modern psychological practice, one can find many borrowings from the eastern spiritual and religious systems. In this connection, the question arises: is there any psychotechnics, tradition of taking care of oneself in Christianity, as the leading religion of Western civilization, which can be the basis of psychological practice?

As it was said above, in the Christian practice of psychotechnics it is worthwhile to search in hesychasm. What is this practice and what psychotechnics does it include?

Within practice yourself Hesychasm refers to a subclass of practices in which the self-transformation of a person is directed towards an unusual and unique goal: the actual transformation of a person into a different way of being, in otherness, which is accomplished by the action of the gracious energies of this other mode of being. The spiritual task performed by an individual person is to transform oneself but the steps of the ascent.

Consider the main stages of spiritual ascent in the Christian practice of hesychasm very clearly.

Hesychasm (from the Greek, ησυχία - tranquility, silence, solitude) is an ancient tradition of spiritual practice that forms the basis of Orthodox asceticism and contains a vast original set of ideas about the person, his consciousness and activities.

Any entry into the tradition begins with a spiritual event, which is called "conversion", more exactly conversion. A person needs to tear himself away from the mundane reality in order that the process of real ascent can begin with him. This block includes classical phenomena of religious life, known in all religious traditions, but in each of them are presented in their own way.

The most metaphorical this stage is described in the famous mythologeme of Plato. If a person wants to see the real light, the source of the whole picture, he needs to turn around, turn. This is the first sense of the cave metaphor, the meaning is very direct, but also very capacious.

The myth of the cave - the famous allegory used by Plato in the treatise "The State" to explain his theory of ideas. It is considered the cornerstone of Platonism and objective idealism in general. Presented in the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Plato's brother Glavkon. A person is a prisoner, sitting in the cave with his back to the source of light. And about real life, objects outside the cave, he can judge only by the shadows that these objects throw on the walls. If he turns his head, he will be hurt by the bright light, and he will not believe the real thing that he sees.

The ancient consciousness painted such a spiritual process that, after the conversion, the as path of returning to oneself begins to unfold. The person, after passing the appeal, must further make some wandering. The metaphor of wandering is a universal metaphor for the process of gaining some experience and then enriching it. You can recall United States folk tales with the journey of the hero: Ivan the Tsarevich, the youngest daughter from the "Scarlet Flower". For the United States mentality, the metaphor of the path as a search for truth (not truth) is important.

But to what does this wandering lead this way? For the ancient mind, a complete and perfect image of the journey is represented primarily in the great poem of Homer, whose name itself became the term and synonym of wanderings, - "Odyssey". Man in his destiny passes some wandering, some way and as a result returns to his native island, to Ithaca. It is possible that as a result of his journey, a person will not return back to where he started; he will return already different. For Christianity, this very image of the journey became the main one. Orthodox asceticism has established that the final state to which the person's spiritual path is guided is a radical transformation, deification.

How to start the mechanism of generation of successive anthropological steps? Such an engine was invented, created by man in himself. It turned out that it consists of two main elements, one of which is called "attention" and another is "prayer." The psychological meaning of the prayer can be found in the book F E. Vasylyuka "Experience and Prayer". Psychotechnics attention in the spiritual Christian practice - this is a whole great apparatus, a special section of anthropological practices. Therefore, he is associated with a very rich vocabulary of ascetic categories: attention, sobriety, keeping the mind and heart and many more.

For example, we will reveal the meaning of the technique of sobering. Sober - an important word that appeared specifically in connection with the needs of describing and understanding ascetic practices. Sober is a state of intense, collected vigilance; a special kind of anthropological states that overcome the opposition of activity and passivity. Consciousness, which protects the internal process of prayer, must be neither active nor passive; it must be vigilant; ready at any time to respond to the intrusion of distractions and eliminate these factors. In other words, it is a technique for controlling the state of consciousness, like the eastern practices of meditation.

Psychological practice (psychotherapy) as a special sphere of sociocultural practice certainly sees origins in esoteric cults, ancient mythology. When the Ch'an mentor offers a koan pupil whose solution is to help get rid of the emotional-psychological "overshadowing" when the shaman of the Kuna tribe of the Kuna sings a ritual song in the hut that helps the woman in childbirth safely to be relieved of burdens, when a monk in an Orthodox monastery professes an old man's thoughts, of these forms of cultural and anthropological practices, the modern psychotherapist readily recognizes the forerunner of professional psychotherapy. However, there is no symmetry here - neither the Ch'anbuddy teacher, nor the shaman, nor the elder do not recognize their descendant or fellow in the therapist. But not because it is impossible to find similarities in the methods of its actions, but because the context, purpose and meaning of these actions radically differ.

( See . task 5 to chapter 2.)

Thus, it can be concluded that spiritual religious practices, as well as philosophical understanding of human being, lay the deep spiritual, social and cultural-historical foundations of psychological practice. And one more important conclusion: a good level of education and inscription in the spiritual practices themselves are an important requirement to the professional level of a psychologist engaged in psychological practice.

Psychotherapy, by historical standards, is still a child compared to other cultural institutions. Having originated in the depths of a psychiatric clinic just a century ago, it rapidly occupied a prominent place in the modern world among all other anthropological practices. The main change in comparison with the clinic is that the patient ceases to be an object of medical intervention (as well as pedagogical intervention, if we talk about psychological and pedagogical counseling). He becomes a participant in the psychotherapeutic process.

There are changes in the use of the language. The language of old psychiatry is used, rather, for "external relations" with the psychiatric community, a new language is being developed within psychoanalysis. Another interesting fact: this new language serves as a means of communication not only between specialists, as it was in the clinic, but also between the psychologist and the client. There arises the possibility of not interrogation, as in medicine, but of dialogue - the space of understanding and the birth of new meanings.

The method of psychotherapy is based on this device spiritual-existential space-time, in which the events in it happen due to falling into some "place", in the topos of the problem. For the living experience of a problem place is that organic, that sensual tissue, the body that is as real as our biological organism. These phenomena in Jungian analysis are said using the term: synchronicity . The profound meaning of the emergence of psychotherapy as a cultural event is that it extends the limits of human freedom by offering a person to take responsibility for one's own life.

Synchronicity is a term introduced by the Swiss psychologist and thinker CG Jung. Jung opposes synchronicity to the fundamental physical principle of causality and describes synchronicity as a constantly acting in nature creative principle that arranges events "unphysical" (neprichinnym) way, only on the basis of their meaning.

As a result of our analysis of psychological practice, psychotherapy as an anthropological practice, following FY Vasyluk, one can raise the question: what are the conditions for professionalization and institutionalization of psychotherapy in culture? Here is the answer of the scientist.

In the era of the crisis, conditions are created for the crystallization psychotherapeutic function and its promotion to the role of cultural dominant. In these conditions, a kind of "psychological mobilization of culture" takes place, special figures and even whole cultural spheres are recruited for the purposeful execution of the psychotherapeutic function, and around them an appropriate ideology is formed, differing in subjectivist and psychologized character. You can disagree with the formula R. May about the development of psychotherapy in public life as a symptom of the decline of culture or its radical changes, but the emergence of modern professional psychotherapy, the count of which is accepted from psychoanalysis, is undoubtedly connected with the dramatic transition from the European "classics" to the epoch of the "modern".

The root of modernity was secularization, its fruit is a self-sufficient person relying on their own mind, their own will, their own forces, setting their own goals before the society, nature, by oneself. The modern man, rejecting as a constitutive boundary of his being a relationship with the Other Being, instead of the expected boundless possibilities, faced another boundary - in himself: this boundary between the conscious and the unconscious became a fundamental relation, the dominant anthropological topic.

The new, "psychological man", believed that it is in the depths of his natural psyche that he is the source of the basic vital forces and creative impulses, as well as of dark monstrous impulses. But this unconscious part of his psyche is estranged from himself. There is a fundamental distrust of the person to himself, deep anthropological suspicion. And because the modern man needed a mediator in a meeting with himself, his life, his consciousness. One that would be consecrated to the secret of the unconscious and was able to express it rationally, scientifically. The psychoanalyst was just such an initiate, a new minister of the new law. Therefore, psychoanalysis was at the center of anthropological revolution , and its influence was broadcast through art, philosophy, advertising, etc.

What distinguishes the human psychological ? F. E. Vasylyuk distinguishes several features:

1) attitude to privacy as a self-worth ("a psychological man" should have a basic sense of the unconditional significance of his personal life, the importance of socially self-evident, not requiring proof, although, perhaps, in need of protection);

2) attitude to the person as the owner of life (the bearer of the problem must understand himself as the owner and, so to speak, the consumer of this life, its owner and user, he has a self-evident right for him possession, disposition and use of life);

3) the idea of ​​well-being as a norm of life (a psychological person has the basic belief that his life should be "OK", which can be understood as success, prosperity, happiness, etc., and any violation of the "law of well-being", any damage to existential property is to be discovered, declared, in fact, a "problem", for which proper measures should be taken to restore order);

4) of consumerism as the dominant existential strategy (the world appears as a receptacle of goods that are to be achieved and consumed, consumption is conceived as the main meaning-creating activity towards which all others occupy a subordinate, servicing attitude)

5) managerism as a vital position ("... only by you of a controlled life"; it has two features - self-will, " as opposed to trust, obedience, attitudes toward consensus or compromise, and setting on active, directive control of life, - as opposed to attitudes such as "inaction", waiting, patience );

6) rationalism as the basis of the world view (rationalistic belief in the potentially exhaustive cognizability of life and the possibility of technical mastery of its laws and mechanisms).

This kind of anthropological portrait of a person is a client in psychological (psychotherapeutic) practice. But you need to understand that under such a "sample" only people of modern European culture are suitable. When a person from Buryatia, Iran, Japan, Mexico, Kazakhstan (from a non-European culture) comes to the psychologist, the usual attitudes described above and assumed as the cultural and ideological basis of the psychologist's work turn out to be "significant barriers" on ways of psychological help to the client.

Thus, before the practice of psychological help, new problems arise: it is, first of all, the problem of cultural responsibility. We now have such a profession that we are responsible for whether a person will seek in his soul Oedipus or Christ. What will be the choice of a cultural, and even more spiritual, position is a matter of personal freedom, rather than professional obligations or prescriptions, but this choice now enters the economy of the profession as a necessary element.

Domestic psychological practice is based on the cultural and historical psychology of LS Vygotsky (you will learn more about this from other theoretical courses in the process of professional training). Before cultural and historical psychology is the task of developing, in addition to the cognitive methodology still the methodology of ethical, cultural, anthropological, axiological. This means that cultural and historical psychology should be for psychological practice philosophy, become the "philosophy of practice".

And finally, for clarity, we give Table. 2.1 comparisons of signs of anthropological practices, which were discussed in this section of the chapter.

Table 2.1

Comparison of anthropological practices

Anthropological practice

Purpose, value


Reason for treatment

Productive Process

Pro Actions






Function recovery and compensation

Treatment (alopathy, homeopathy)

Philosophy: philosopher


Reason (mind)

Loss of truth (path, truth)

Finding the truth


Religion: priest

Faith, holiness




Confession, counseling

Pedagogy: Teacher

Adaptation, socialization knowledge

Behavior, abilities

Deceptive behavior



Psychology: a practical psychologist of education

Psychological health

Personality, subject of development, student

Violations of psychological health, educational, school difficulties

Psychological development

Psychological correction (in a broad sense)

thematic pictures

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