Development of psychological practice within the framework of gestalt psychology
Gestalt psychology owes its appearance to the German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffke, and Wolfgang Köhler, who put forward a program of studying the psyche from the standpoint of holistic structures - gestalt . The term gestalt does not have an unambiguous translation from German, as the closest equivalents you can use the concepts "holistic image", "form", "structure". In other words, the perception of ns only reduces to a sum of sensations (this was also written about to Gestalt psychologists), but sensations, in fact, are not at all.
(See task 12 to chapter 2.)
Gestalt ( Gestalt - form, image, structure) is a spatially visual form of perceived objects whose essential properties can not be understood by summing the properties of their parts. If the correlation between the number of identical elements and the degree of similarity is absent, and the similarity is due to the functional structures of the two holistic phenomena as such, then we have a gestalt (K. Dunker).
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
Max Wertheimer (German Max Wertheimer) is one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. Born in Prague, he worked in Germany and the United States. Together with Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka, he carried out research on the effect of moving images on a tachistoscope, after which he published his famous article "Experimental Studies of the Perception of Motion" (1912). Generalizing work is the book "Productive thinking."
Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)
Kurt Koffka (German Kurt Kojfka) - a German-American psychologist. Together with Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler, he is considered one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. At the same time, he was close to investigators of Vygotsky's circle. He worked in Germany, the United States and Great Britain, collaborated with psychologists from the USSR, and published in United States as well. In the work "Fundamentals of Mental Development (1921) applied methods of gestalt psychology to study the child's mental development. The main work of Koffki - Principles of gestalt psychology (1935).
Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)
Wolfgang Kohler (German Wolfgang Kohler) is a German and American psychologist born in the territory of the United States Empire (in Tallinn), one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. He researched on the anthropoid apes a phenomenon called insight.
Proceeding from this pattern of perception, studies of the illusions of perception were popular. In the experiments of M. Wertheimer, two identical objects (segment), located at a distance from each other, were alternately flashed and darkened, i.e. lighted and faded & quot ;. It turned out that as the time intervals between the flashes a person sees not two successively firing and dying objects, but one segment that moves and returns to its original position. Do not remind you of these effects our perception of flashing pictures (frames) on the screen as a related movement - a movie? It is no accident that in English the word "movie" (film) on writing and sounding very close to the word "move"; (move, move).
Gestalt forms are always holistic, completed structures, with well-defined contours. The contour, characterized by the degree of sharpness and closedness or non-closure of outlines, is the basis of Gestalt, and one of its fundamental properties is the desire for completeness, manifested in particular by the Zeygarnik effect (studies in this area were the topic of the thesis work Blumy Vulffepa Zeigarnik.) Hence one of the mottoes of Gestalt psychology as psychological practice: "We will finish our gestalt". It is assumed that the unfinished action, the unsatisfied need create a gestalt that persists in the human psyche until the need is satisfied and the action is completed. This is especially true for those gestals that cause tension, negative painful experiences. The exam, which failed to get the desired assessment, an insult that could not be said to a significant person before parting, etc., is in fact regarded as incomplete gestalt, which must be completed in a symbolic form.
The Zeigarnik effect is a psychological effect, which means that a person remembers interrupted tasks better than completed ones. Half of the activities performed by the subjects in the experiment were allowed to continue until completion (or completion of the task), and the remaining half was interrupted by the experimenter at one or another stage. Incompleteness creates a motivation for the continuation of the activity (the completion of the task), respectively, is better remembered.
Blum Vulfovna Zeigarnik (1900-1988)
Blooma Vulfovna Zeigarnik (born Gerstein, German Bluma Zeigamik) is a Soviet psychologist, the founder of United States pathopsychology. The thesis was done under the guidance of Kurt Levin at the University of Berlin, where she showed that the unfinished actions are remembered better than the completed ones (the "Zeigarnik effect"). Since 1931, Mr .. worked in the psychoneurological clinic of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine under the leadership of LS Vygotsky. One of the creators of the Faculty of Psychology of Moscow State University, the Department of Neuro- and Pathopsychology.
A similar explanation for these phenomena was suggested in his field theory German (later - American) psychologist Kurt Levin. He believed that the image of the world is formed immediately as an integrity, and this occurs at the moment as insight. The concept of zero connects K. Levin with the system of objects-drivers of human activity, existing here and now in his psychological, subjective space. The field is tense (analogous to the physical field, like gestaltists, K. Levin asserted the identity of physical and psychological regularities) when there is a disturbance of equilibrium between the individual and the environment. This tension needs to be discharged, which is realized as the realization of intention. When implementing an intention, objects in which a person does not experience more needs lose their motivation.
Kurt Levin (1890-1947)
Kurt Zadek Levin is a German, and then an American psychologist whose ideas have had a big impact on American social psychology and many other schools and directions , especially on the theory of cultural development of LS Vygotsky. Many of the issues he dealt with became fundamental for psychologists - the level of claims, group dynamics, social perception, game situations, the pursuit of success and avoiding failures, field theory, a time perspective.
In describing Gestalt, the notion of importance is also used. The whole can be important, the members - unimportant, and vice versa. The figure is always more important than the background - the background. Importance can be distributed in such a way that as a result, all members are equally important (this is a rare case that occurs, for example, in some ornaments).
Gestalt psychologists have studied the features of perception, the nature of the illusions of perception, but we will leave this conversation for other theoretical courses. In the context of our conversation on psychological practice, it is important to note that these theoretical studies are only partly related to the practice of Gestalt therapy.
The founder of g stress therapy is Frederic Perla, along with his like-minded people - Ralph Hefferlin, Paul Goodman, Laura Perls, Isidore Frome, and others.
Frederick Perls (1893-1970)Frederick Salomon Perls, also known as Fritz Perls, is an eminent German psychiatrist, a psychotherapist of Jewish ancestry.
Frédéric Salomon Perls . F. Perls developed Gestalt therapy, relying on the practice of psychoanalysis, existentialism, phenomenology, eastern philosophy, field theory and the theory of gestalt psychology. Conceptually, Gestalt therapy is close to humanistic psychology.
The three-lobed symbol of gestalt: relevance - awareness - responsibility (actuality - awareness - responsibility). Awareness is based on the practice of awareness - it is the observation by a specific person at a given moment in time and the naming of all the phenomena and facts of one's own psychic reality in appropriate words: "I realize at this moment (" here and now ", as psychologists say) own feelings, feelings, thoughts ... & quot ;. Gestalt therapy is therapy by action: it is built ns as much on speaking as it is on feeling and dramatizing. For example, the known method of Gestalt therapy is the method of empty stool (or "hot stool"). On this chair you can plant an imaginary meaningful Other and conduct a dialogue with him, exchange roles with him and continue the conversation "with his chair".
The purpose of this practice is to restore the integrity of man: the unity of sensations, feelings, thoughts; unity of the emotional and rational, the unity of the soul and body. Violation of integrity leads to a violation of the self-regulation of the human body as a living system.
Widely known is the "Gestaltist Prayer", which belongs to Fritz Perls himself, and which reflects the essence of co-being in gestalt:
I'm doing my job, and you're doing your own thing.
I'm not in this world to live up to your expectations, and you - not to match mine.
You are you, and I am I.
If we happen to find each other - this is fine, if not - nothing can be done.
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