Development of high school students in the process of professional self-determination
The desire to develop one's own personality during the youth period is closely interlinked with the need to become a member of society and to achieve recognition on his part, as well as motivation to achieve it.
Self-consciousness at this age acquires a qualitatively specific character. It is associated with the need to evaluate the qualities of one's personality, taking into account specific life aspirations. On the basis of self-awareness, the need for self-education develops, aimed not only at overcoming certain shortcomings and developing certain positive qualities, but also in shaping the personality as a whole in accordance with personal ideals. The development of self-awareness, according to IS Kon, is the central psychological process of adolescence, which encourages the person to measure all his aspirations and deeds with certain principles and image of his "I". The older and more mature a young man, the more his upbringing becomes a self-education.
1. It is believed that the leading activity in adolescence is professional self-determination. In connection with the solution of the tasks of this activity, there is a rapid development of the personality, the manifestation of which is an emerging worldview, a generalized form of self-consciousness, the discovery of "I," experienced in the form of a sense of individual integrity and uniqueness.
L. S. Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, I. S. Kon, L. I. Bozhovich note the important role of adolescence in the development of self-consciousness. It can be argued that in adolescence, a person develops: 1) self-consciousness is a holistic self-image, self-assessment of one's mental, moral, volitional qualities, appearance, an emotional attitude towards oneself, an awareness of one's own merits and demerits; 2) own worldview as an integral system of views, beliefs; 3) critical rethinking of everything around, self-assertion of one's own independence. Youth determines the whole future life of a person, since it is at this age that a person chooses a profession and his place in life.
The formation of self-understanding, as well as the sustainable image of one's personality, is an important psychological process of the youth period. There are several directions in the development of self-understanding: 1) the emergence of the ability to comprehend the irreversibility of time, the understanding of the finiteness of their existence, the comprehension of their life goals, aspirations, essence and meaning of their being, the individual; 2) the manifestation of a sense of one's own particularity, of being different from others, which is a consequence of the discovery and comprehension of the young men of their inner world, the analysis of their emotional experiences not conditioned by external events; 3) the formation of an integral and valuable representation of knowledge about oneself, relations to oneself, and the role of self-understanding here is not only in analyzing and characterizing one's appearance, but also in comprehending knowledge about oneself, depending on the specific case associated with analyzing one's own intellectual and moral-psychological qualities .
The process of development and formation in a person of self-understanding occurs gradually throughout his life path under the influence of various and numerous social influences. In the process of socialization, young men and women develop an experience of understanding their own capabilities, which are necessary to achieve certain goals. In adolescence, self-understanding of a person acquires a specific character - in accordance with the leading activities of this age period, socialization in which is of a professional nature, self-understanding also becomes professional.
Based on the literature analysis, professional self-determination is a multidimensional and multistage process that can be viewed from different angles:
1) as a series of tasks that society poses to a person - a sociological approach;
2) as a process of step-by-step decision-making, through which the individual forms a balance between his own preferences and the needs of the division of labor system in society - a socio-psychological approach;
3) as the process of forming an individual lifestyle, of which professional activity is a part, is a differential-psychological approach.
From the standpoint of the latter approach, professional self-determination of personality is treated as "I-concept" individual, reflecting his understanding, experiences and intentions, objective actions in professional activity in specific social conditions, therefore, professional self-determination involves the formation of a subject of a specific type of work.
Thus, professional self-determination is not only an act of choice. It has a dynamic and conscious character and is carried out at the stages of a person's life.
Professional self-determination should optimally combine the student's personal interests and public interests, since each profession plays a certain role in the development of the national economy. Consequently, the study of inclinations and interests should be included in the system of components of the process of professional self-determination.
The course of professional self-determination is guided by different aspects of self-consciousness of the individual. Adequate knowledge of yourself, your abilities, interests, value orientations, allows you to choose the most appropriate areas of activity. Therefore, self-consciousness is also introduced into the spectrum of the components of the process of professional self-determination.
Let us dwell in more detail on the consideration of each of the components of professional self-determination.
Despite some differences in the evaluation of various motives of professional activity, all researchers who deal with this problem consider it to be the most important for the successful development of the personality in the profession.
Self-awareness . The development of self-consciousness is an important component, both the formation of the personality as a whole, and its professional development. Traditionally, in self-consciousness, three structural components are distinguished: cognitive (self-knowledge); affective (emotional-value attitude of the person to himself); behavioral (the use of self-knowledge to regulate behavior).
Choice of profession is a rather complex and sometimes long motivational process: the correct choice of a profession largely depends on the person's satisfaction with his life. A conscious choice of a profession occurs with a person's orientation to the social values that he has. A number of people choose a profession because of their interest in it, and often this interest is of a romantic nature, inspired by literature, seen by the film, telecast. It should be taken into account how selective the activity corresponds to the interests of the person, how much it is motivated and realized by the optant.
Thus, readiness for professional self-determination has a dynamic and conscious character, and the components of this process are professional motivation, self-awareness and a system of value orientations.
As a rule, problems of professional self-determination are studied on the samples of high school students standing on the threshold of determining their professional future.
This is due to the fact that the need for self-determination is a central component of the social situation of the development of high school students.
In domestic psychology, a great place in the self-determination of a young man is given to the activity of the individual. As AE Golomshtok points out, one of the most important is the "work to educate students about the desire for self-discovery, the activation of their internal position in the choice of profession." In this regard, in the process of professional self-determination, the task is set to form a professional orientation as an attitude of a person to professional activity to establish the personality for the development of the qualities necessary for a successful career in a chosen profession. In essence, as L. L. Kondratiev points out, the choice of profession testifies to the social and moral maturity of the individual. In the choice of profession, the graduate's personal interests and public interests act in their optimal combination, since each profession plays a certain role in the development of science, culture, etc. The right choice indicates the development of positive traits of the student's personality, the well-known formation of his inclinations, the understanding of his individual characteristics, and the knowledge of the world of professions. The choice ultimately demonstrates how successfully the three main participants in the educational process interacted, how well the family, the social environment, the school coped with their task.
Choosing a profession, the student is guided by three series of factors:
1) on personal interests. It is not necessary that this is necessarily narrowly individualistic interests;
2) a number of factors are related to the understanding of "where I need", understanding the place of the chosen profession in the structure of society, the need for personnel;
3) a number of factors associated with knowledge of their abilities, capabilities, individual psychological characteristics, which is largely determined by the culture of psychological knowledge.
The choice of a profession is viewed from the perspective of building, designing a life perspective for students of senior school age, for whom the aspiration to the future becomes one of the main personal characteristics (LI Bozhovich, M. R. Ginzburg, N. N. Tolstykh). To ensure that the choice of the profession was not only motivated, but would ensure the successful formation of professional fitness, it is necessary to implement effective psychological and pedagogical leadership of this process. The choice of the profession is influenced by many factors: social conditions of life, the conditions of family upbringing and the peculiarities of schooling, relationships with peers and adults, the current needs of the society in the cadres, the social importance of the profession and much more.
Many psychologists (IV Dubrovina, DI Feldshtein, LM Mitin, etc.) have been engaged in and are engaged in the problem of age characteristics of pupils of the 11th grade. Therefore, we will not dwell on the characteristics of this age, we note only those features of the personality of the senior pupil, which are of fundamental importance for understanding the specifics of the process of their professional self-determination. The most important characteristics of the senior school age are aspiration to the future, personal self-determination, developed level of self-awareness.
These characteristics mainly determine the specifics of the motivational and demanding sphere of a high school student, the direction of his interests, the features of self-regulation. Specialists engaged in this age, note that the problem of professional self-determination among high school students begins to occupy one of the important places in life, the character of cognitive activity and the formation of inclinations in a high school student is changing. In the older school age, there is a great differentiation of the types of focus on one or another activity. NS Leites notes that in the older masses many students have a much more pronounced inclination toward individual subjects than in the previous years of training: to mathematics or science disciplines - in some cases, to humanities - in others. According to DI Feldstein, with age, high school students are trying to really assess themselves, their inclinations and seek to discuss different options for their future.
The psychological basis for self-determination in early adolescence is, first of all, the need to take the adult's inner position, to realize oneself as a member of society, to define oneself in the world, i.е. understand yourself and your abilities along with understanding your place and purpose in life. Also at this age, a worldview is formed, a generalized form of self-consciousness, whose work manifests itself in the young man's desire to approach himself from the standpoint of the values that are recited and actually prevailing in society.
Another important factor of readiness for professional self-determination, as Dubrovin notes, is the readiness of a high school student to enter a new life, the ability and needs that enable the school graduate to fully realize themselves in the civilian field, in labor, in future family life. First, the need for communication and mastery of the methods of its construction, and secondly, theoretical thinking and the ability to navigate in various forms of theoretical consciousness, which is in the form of the established foundations of the scientific and civil worldview, as well as the developed reflection through which conscious and critical attitude to yourself, thirdly, the need for work and the ability to work, the possession of work skills that enable you to engage in productive activities, carrying it out on a creative basis.
As noted by NS Pryazhnikov, the formation of professional interests takes the form of inclusion in the overall structure of individual and personal characteristics, then the integration of professional interests is strengthened. One of the main motives for the teaching of high school students is the preparation for entering a professional educational institution.
Most researchers note that there is no automatic formation of readiness for professional self-determination. From the point of view of the overall success of professional self-determination, graduates have great importance not only for the content characteristics of this process (what the high school student chooses), but also on the dynamic side (how he chooses). The validity, realism and constructiveness of a personal, professional perspective, not least depends on what is guided by the young man planning his professional future - rational plans, considerations or vague emotional preferences, his own ideas or opinions of others, how much he is confident in the embodiment of individual professional projects in life etc.
So, students of the 11th grade are at a qualitatively new stage of forming readiness for professional self-determination. At this stage, as a rule, there is a more thorough understanding of the place of the profession in the socio-economic structure of society, its essential aspects. Life experience, interest in self-knowledge contribute to a better understanding of their capabilities, their resources. There is not only interest in getting acquainted with the content and working conditions, but also a more serious orientation to their abilities, inclinations, an attempt to correlate their psychological characteristics with the requirements of the profession. From this position, the high school student begins to evaluate school disciplines, extracurricular activities, trying to give more strength and time to those that are correlated with the future profession.
The formation of readiness for the professional self-determination of high school students is determined by the following criteria:
Cognitive: degree of presentation of students about individual psycho-physiological qualities; degree of familiarization with the content of the elected professional activity; degree of awareness of the student about the overall professionally important qualities and special in this professional field.
Motivationally-demanding: the nature of motivation and activity of students; awareness of the personal and social significance of the future profession; the presence of interest in the profession in the system of value orientations; the need to do certain professional activities, to realize abilities in activity.
Activity-practical : the ability of students to correlate their individual characteristics and professional requirements of the profession; mastery of the basic methods of work.
Due to the fact that professional self-determination is complex in its structure and influenced by a complex of factors, it is necessary to use not only special means of a vocational guidance system but also other ones from related fields of knowledge to form it. In this aspect, the profiles of differentiated education in specialized senior classes are promising.
Thus, it is assumed that a high level of professional self-determination determines a higher level of educational motivation.
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