Development of skills for identifying cause-effect...

Developing skills to identify cause-effect relationships

Thinking is a form of mental reflection that establishes, through the concepts of communication and the relationship between cognitive phenomena. That is, natural-science thinking, like any other, includes the establishment of connections. The ability to establish and study cause-effect relationships is a necessary quality of a person who knows the world around him. This work stimulates the thinking activity of children, activates the learning process. In addition, the identification of links between objects, phenomena, events is necessary for the formation and development of most natural science concepts.

There is a requirement in GEF that has a direct bearing on the development by the students of the skills of revealing the cause-effect relationships: Consciousness of the integrity of the surrounding world. Awareness of such integrity is achieved by various methods and, of course, schoolchildren the idea of ​​the interconnectedness of objects and phenomena of the surrounding world.

In GEF, there is one type of relationship - cause-and-effect relationships. This relationship, which is not only identified, but also established, is understood the cause of their occurrence. However, it is possible that the connection is established, but the cause of the connection is unknown. Let us call such connections empirical. Already first-graders know that the north is cold, and in the south it's warm. But why so many schoolchildren do not yet know. That is, they have formed an empirical connection: "north is cold", "south is heat". This relationship is transformed into a cause-and-effect relationship only after the children establish and realize other connections, namely: a) the dependence of the inclination of the sun's rays on the latitude of the terrain (in the north, the sun's rays fall at an acute angle), and b) the dependence of the intensity of the earth's surface heating the angle of incidence of the sun's rays (in the north it is cold, because the sun's rays that fall at an acute angle weakly warm the earth's surface).

The schoolchildren's assimilation only at the empirical level leads to the fact that schoolchildren, especially the younger ones, often confuse the cause and effect of the phenomena studied and draw incorrect conclusions. In the section devoted to the organization of observations in nature, one mentions the case when the question "What winds prevail in Tatarstan in winter?" not only schoolchildren, but also many teachers respond that the northern, although in fact there is a significant predominance of southern winds. In this case, precisely this empirical connection is triggered: "north is cold", "south is heat".

By nature, studied in the "Ambient World" and empirical, and cause-and-effect relationships can be arranged:

• in terms of space-time characteristics:

- spatial (north - low temperatures, south - heat),

- temporary (successive change of day and night, seasons);

• by structure:

- two-component (predator-prey);

- chains (a leaf of a tree - aphids - a ladybug);

- networks (interlacing food chains in ecosystems);

• in terms of direction:

- one-sided (the influence of sunlight on the development of plants);

- bilateral, reciprocal (mutual influence of the fungus and the tree).

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