Development of the psyche under extreme conditions and conditions of deprivation
The study of the development of the psyche in extreme conditions and conditions of deprivation is engaged in extreme psychology.
Extreme psychology is a branch of psychological science that studies the general psychological patterns of life and activity in changed (unusual) conditions of existence: during aerospace flights, stay in hard-to-reach areas of the globe (Arctic, Antarctic, highlands, desert), in a dungeon, etc. Extreme psychology emerged in the XX century, combining research in the field of aviation, space, marine and polar psychology. Extreme conditions are characterized by altered afferentation (a stream of nerve impulses entering the central nervous system from the sensory organs that perceive information as from external stimuli (exteroreception),
and from internal organs (interreception)), the changed information structure, socio-psychological limitations and the presence of a risk factor. Thus, extreme situations include not only natural disasters, fire, terrorist attacks, flight into space, but also height, confined space, presentation to the audience, examination, etc.
In extreme situations and situations of deprivation, seven basic psychogenic factors act on the person:
2) the changed spatial structure;
3) the changed time structure;
4) restriction of personally important information;
6) group isolation (informational exhaustion of communication partners, constant publicity, etc.);
7) a threat to life.
In the process of adaptation to extreme conditions, the following stages are distinguished, characterized by a change in emotional states and the appearance of unusual psychic phenomena:
• starting mental stress;
• Acute psychic reactions of the entrance;
• Psychic re-adaptation;
• the final mental stress;
• Acute psychic release reactions;
Many scientists note the presence of a stressful reaction of the organism in extreme situations. The physiological reaction to stress manifests itself when the psyche, recognizing the situation as extreme, gives the body the command "preparation for battle." But when there is no battle, the body can not naturally burn up surplus resources.
In these cases, a variety of somatic manifestations arise: redness of the skin, loss of speech, blockage of motor function, panic and other reactions.
In the genesis of unusual mental states can be traced: anticipation (anticipation, anticipation of events) in the situation of information uncertainty (the stage of the starting mental stress and the final stage); the breakdown of functional systems of analyzers formed during ontogenesis or prolonged stay in extreme conditions, disturbance of the course of mental processes and changes in the system of relations (the stage of acute psychic reactions of entry and exit); the active activity of the individual in developing protective (compensatory) reactions in response to the influence of psychogenic factors (the stage of re-adaptation) or the restoration of previous response stereotypes (the stage of re-adaptation). Disclosure of the genesis of unusual mental states allows them to be attributed to regular reactions that fit within the limits of the psychological norm for the changed conditions of existence. With an increase in the time spent in such situations and the severe impact of psychogenic factors, and also with insufficiently high neuropsychological stability and the absence of preventive measures, the stage of re-adaptation is replaced by a stage of profound mental changes characterized by the development of neuropsychic disorders. Between the stages of re-adaptation and profound mental changes, there is an intermediate stage of unstable mental activity, characterized by the appearance of prepathological conditions. These include states that have not yet passed into neuropsychic diseases, but are at the border of psychological norms and pathologies.
To the impact of a stressful situation was not destructive for the body and psyche, you must learn how to behave correctly in them. In many instructions on behavior in extreme situations, specialists emphasize that one should keep in touch with reality, try to understand the meaning of what is happening. If there is no possibility to influence the very fact of the situation, it remains to accept it, to accept that it exists, and to try to understand what it contains in itself.
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