Diagnosis of self-determination and self-efficacy in business
Self-determination of a person in business is a complex and multifactorial process, and his research presents a certain difficulty.
In the laboratory of the Central Research Institute of HSE, "Business Psychology" developed and tested a methodological apparatus for the study and diagnosis of the process of self-determination, consisting of a block of techniques, mostly projective. Identity (personal and professional), professional life plan and perspective, the image of the client of business and other variables are investigated as the components of self-determination. The study of identity plays a central role in the analysis of the process of self-determination.
One of the most popular methods for examining identity and self-determination is the "Who am I?" M. Kuna and T. McPartland. There are many options for using this technique and processing the results.
We used the "Who am I?" for the diagnosis of the status of the identity of business entities according to the author's typology, developed on the basis of the status model of J. Marcia. We identified four types of identity, which are also the stages of its development, based on two parameters: "identity forces" (the degree and depth of knowledge of oneself and confidence in one's goals, values, convictions) and "openness" (readiness for change, acceptance of new identity elements). The first type is the strong open identity - characterized by the presence of conscious elements of identity, while being ready for change. The second type is strong closed identity - can be formed as a result of taking elements from outside (according to J. Marcia, "premature identity"), but there is no willingness to change, which can lead to a destructive crisis. The third type is the weak open identity - In fact, it is a state of constructive identity crisis and is described as "self-search", an attempt to understand "who am I". The fourth type is the weak closed identity - close to the diffuse identity according to J. Marcia, and there is no state of searching for new elements. This state of identity can be accompanied by destructive emotional states, up to suicidal intentions.
Instructions for the test "Who am I?": "Within 12 minutes you need to give 20 different answers that come to your mind, to the question:" Who am I? ".
After the respondents write all the answers, they are asked to mark each statement with a sign: + - If I like this characteristic, I treat this quality positively; - if I do not like this in myself; 0 - if I'm neutral about this characteristic.
To process the results, we used the method of content analysis of the received texts, as well as counted the total number of statements (respondents can give as less or more than 20 characteristics), as well as the number of positive and negative characteristics.
To determine the identity status, the following metrics are important.
1. The level of identity differentiation, the indicator of which is the total number of utterances. A high level of differentiation (15-20 characteristics) indicates a strong identity. Low level of differentiation (1-5 characteristics) may indicate the existence of a destructive crisis of identity, personal closeness. A very high level of differentiation (more than 20 utterances, while respondents often ask "what else can I write?") Is characteristic of people in a state of constructive identity crisis, "seeking oneself" (very typical for teenagers).
2. Correlation of socially-role and individual-personal statements. Social role roles include: general roles ("person"), family roles ("mother", "son"), professional roles ("manager"), other roles ("passenger", "reader" ;). The predominance of role characteristics may indicate the predominance of social identification over personal identity, which may be a sign of closure for change. The predominance of individual and personal characteristics, especially in the form of adjectives ("clever", "good", "caring") may indicate, on the contrary, the predominance of personal identification and openness in the search for new identity elements. However, the presence of personality characteristics in the form of adjectives on the first three positions in the list of qualities may indicate a strong emotional experience, a crisis, which, however, requires confirmation by other methods.
3. The ratio of positive and negative self-characteristics. Usually in this test people use not more than 1/3 of negative self-characteristics from all statements. The presence of more negative statements may indicate a decreased self-esteem and a destructive crisis.
4. Temporal parameters of identity. People usually write answers in this test in the present tense. Presence of replies turned into the past (prospective identity) - for example, "was once a happy person", may indicate negative crisis trends. On the contrary, the presence of characteristics that are turned into the future (perspective identity), can speak of a constructed time horizon and "strong" identity.
5. The presence of the words "crisis indicators", even if they are single, indicate the existence of an identity crisis: constructive, accompanied by an active search for identity elements ("I do not know who I am", "I'm searching", "I'm trying to understand who I am"; ), or destructive, accompanied by closeness and negative emotional states, especially if social-role statements predominate. A typical example of this type is the answers of one respondent: after a dozen professional roles ("I'm the manager", "I'm an administrator", etc.), the last statement was "I'm an unhappy woman".
6. The presence of words - indicators of "work of identity": characteristics of one's own beliefs, goals, values - indicates the existence of an open, strong identity.
All these indicators are analyzed in aggregate, and only after a deep qualitative and quantitative analysis is the conclusion about the prevalence of a particular type (status) of identity (Table 4.2).
According to our information, it is "strong open identity" is typical for people who are most successful in business. Such people are clearly aware of their goals and values, they know their strengths and weaknesses, at the same time they are ready to perceive the new and to change, that in modern conditions, rapid social changes are simply necessary. If there is a closed type of identity, the entrepreneur may have problems that require the help of a psychologist. Therefore, this technique can be used at the beginning of the consultative work to determine the strategy of psychological support to the client.
Table 4.2. Identity status indicators in the "Who am I?" test answers "
1. Strong open identity
High differentiation, the predominance of individual and personal characteristics, the predominance of positive characteristics, the presence of indicators "work of identity", the presence of a promising identity
2. Strong closed identity (premature identity)
High or average differentiation, predominance of social-role utterances, predominance of positive self-characteristics
3. Weak, open identity (diffuse identity, constructive crisis)
High or very high differentiation, the predominance of individual and personal characteristics, the presence of words - indicators of the crisis or words - indicators of the work of identity, the presence of a promising identity
4. Weak, closed identity (destructive crisis)
Low differentiation, predominance of socio-role statements, the presence of negative self-characteristics, the presence of words - indicators of the crisis
Diagnostics of self-efficacy as a quality that promotes success in business is conducted using the methods of R. Schwarzer, M. Erusalem, adapted in our country by V. Romek.
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