Different approaches to ideology - Political psychology

Different approaches to ideology

In the domestic philosophical literature there are attempts to characterize various approaches to ideology. The most productive of them can be considered the work of AV Zhukotsky, which shows, in particular, that ideology can be viewed in terms of knowledge. This applies to the concepts of K. Mannheim and M. Scheler. In this case, ideology is interpreted only as a functional category. The goal of ideology is not the attainment of truth, but the orientation of people toward certain social actions and behavior.

Ideology can also be interpreted in terms of action (I. Horowitz, J. Habermas). According to Habermas, any ideology is nothing but a hoax. He believes it is important to determine the place and role of social cognition, to investigate the conditions of its emergence and application. This, according to the scientist, will contribute to the education of political forces, which will adequately realize ideological functions. J. Habermas argues that participants in the interactions (symbolically mediated communicative action) provide mutual understanding only in the mainstream of a certain cultural tradition. Coordination of their actions and development of intersubjective values ​​is due to belonging to social groups. The value orientations of these groups contribute to the socialization of participants in the interaction. According to Habermas, ideology must be eliminated, and the "determinants of false consciousness" changed.

Ideology is also evaluated in terms of the irrational (E. Topić, K. Salamun, E. Shils, O. Lemberg). Ernst Topić and Kurt Salamun are developing an irrational trend in the theory of ideology. They deduce ideology from the universal and mentally conditioned way of thinking.

Oh. Lemberg views ideology as a set of prejudices. The concept of prejudice, like the concept of ideology, has its own history and problems. The concept of prejudice was spread among people who, as a result of new methods of thinking, became disenchanted with the old ideology. Prejudice is the answer to new situations. First of all, the author is interested in the influence of prejudices on a particular person, especially on the so-called "authoritarian personality", i.e. on a man whose prejudice towards prejudice is related to the need for authority. O. Lemberg believes that prejudice should be considered in conjunction with other elements that create an idea of ​​the world. Just as scientifically investigating ideology is possible only if one does not identify it with lies and self-deception, prejudices can only be analyzed if they are not considered morally.

According to Lemberg, the dominance of ideology does not necessarily have to coincide with political domination, power and spirit can come into conflict, official ideology is not always the most powerful. In this are the possibilities of ideological pluralism. In the modern world, one can point to numerous examples of the "multilayered ideologies", which are based on the polarity inherent in human thinking in solving ideological systems. This polarity contributes to the emergence of opposing systems, over which individual ideologies are layered. An adherent of one ideological system can agree on a number of issues with decisions of another ideology.

Ideology is often interpreted in terms of the theory of values ​​(axiology). Thus, in the works of G. Albert, T. Geiger, the concept of ideology is expressed in the value aspect. G. Albert notes that modern society needs a relatively autonomous and policy-free area in which "the interest in seeking an unbiased truth would be institutionalized". Ideology should act as such an "unbiased truth." G. Albert opposes a sharp break in science and ideology. The difference between science and ideology is not as constructive as it appears in the positivistic program. In reality, in the process of cognition, a significant role is played by elements of a value and normative nature.

According to Zhukotskaya, ideology serves as an instrument of power and political action, but it can not be regarded only as a political ideology. The formation of the institutions of civil society and political institutions of the modern state, their further development, were simultaneously interrelated. Civil society and the state are two sides, two states of society. They are inextricably linked. Between them, as between any interacting subsystems, there is some "buffer zone", characterized by the presence of common components. This zone provides the interconnection and interchange of a number of institutions and phenomena that, as ideology, can be attributed to both the sphere of civil society and the state sphere (language, religious systems, information, etc.).

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