Disorders of purposeful actions
In the process of life, the person gradually develops the skills of purposeful actions (praxis), which is based on the consolidation of temporary connections - the development of conditioned-reflex motor stereotypes. Apraxia - Violation of the purposeful action (certain arbitrary movements), caused by the disorder of the regulation sequence in the motor part of the second signal system with the preservation of simple and chain unconditioned reflex arcs.
Apraxia is detected by the following tests: the patient must imitate the actions of the psychologist (for example, the psychologist touches the thumb of the opposite hand); the patient should, at the behest, make certain movements (touch the left ear with his right hand, pour a glass of water into a glass and drink it, fasten the button, etc.); the patient should show how to eat soup, how to cut a piece of meat with a knife and fork, drive a nail, etc., and also make some mimic movements (study of the symbolic process): shake your finger, send an air kiss, etc.
The most important component of assessing the psychological status of a person, conducted by an expert psychologist, is the characterization of the dynamic characteristics of his mental activity - such as tempo, uniformity, inertia, lability, exhaustion of mental processes . The dynamics of mental activity is seen through all the diagnostic procedures that are being carried out.
So, about mental activity testifies the rate of the fulfillment of experimental tasks. Reduction in the rate of completion of the task to patients in the middle or the end of the diagnosis may indicate the exhaustion of mental processes. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the external manifestations of signs of exhaustion in the patient: blanching or redness of the skin; Inadequacy of the emotional sphere - anxiety, tearfulness, increased excitability, irritability; the timbre of a voice is an increase or decrease in the tone of speech and other manifestations.
Inertness as a dynamic indicator of mental processes characterizes the time interval (pause) between familiarization with the instruction and the beginning of its implementation, as well as a pause between the elements (operations) of the subject's actions. About increased inertness can be said in the case when the patient continues to perform the outdated instruction, instead of switching to the execution of the newly defined one.
Evaluation of uniformity mental processes are fluctuations in the productivity of the patient's work throughout the study. These fluctuations can be manifested as when moving from one task to another, and during the same job.
Study of the emotional-volitional sphere
The assessment of the emotional-volitional sphere of the patient is conducted by the psychologist throughout the communication with him and analysis of the pattern of behavior. In addition, special diagnostic techniques are used.
1. Color Relationship Test (A. Etkind).
Purpose: revealing the emotional attitude of the subject to various manifestations of the surrounding reality (the family as a whole, to individual family members, to work, friends, parents).
Material: the color cards of M. Luscher's set.
Instruction: (before the patients a set of cards is laid out). Please select the color that you associate with work (illness, illness, school, parents, wife, husband, doctors ...).
The set of determined emotional relationships to a particular person or situation is determined from the necessity, based on the medical history and the introductory conversation of the psychologist with the patient.
During the study, the psychologist records the results in the protocol (Table 5).
Table 5. Research Results Protocol
Interpretation: Based on the domination of a particular color, you can identify the emotional state of the patient. When referring to the color choices of different events or people, you can determine their significance for the researcher.
2. The technique for determining the plasticity-rigidity of the emotional sphere.
Material: a blank sheet (half a sheet of A4 paper), a pen or pencil.
The procedure consists of four stages. At each stage, the instruction changes.
1. At the first stage, the subject should write in the usual way the phrase The field is already melting snow.
The subject is given a sheet of paper and pen, it is suggested to write the phrase: "In the field the snow melted already" and emphasize it.
Instructions: You must write this phrase as often as possible in 30 seconds. Write should be so that each phrase takes a separate line. Start writing on my team. After the command Stop you should stop working on the letter that she found you. Try to arrange the lines closer to each other, because you will be given a few more jobs. "
2. At the second stage it is necessary to write in block letters. Instruction: Now you must write the same phrase, at the same rate, but only in block letters. Other requirements are the same .
3. At the third stage, you need to alternate capital and printed letters.
Instruction: Now the task is complicated. You should write the same phrase in a combined way - alternate capital and printed letters, ie first - capital, second - printed, third - uppercase, fourth - printed, etc. "
4. At the fourth stage, you should write with double letters in the usual handwriting.
Instructions: Now complete the last task. The phrase you know should be written in the usual handwriting (in words), but each letter must be repeated twice: two letters "in", two letters "k", two letters "about", two "k"; etc. The pace of work is not to reduce.
Processing of results. To determine the plasticity-rigidity index, the number of characters (letters) written at each stage separately is first calculated. The sum of the signs of the first stage is taken as the background result (MF). Then the average result of the modified tasks is calculated, i.e. second, third and fourth stages:
where Мср - the average indicator of the modified tasks; M2 - the result of the second stage; M3 is the result of the third ethane; M4 is the result of the fourth stage.
The index of rigidity - rigidity is the coefficient of rigidity (P), which is defined as
the ratio of the average result of the modified jobs (Msp) to the result of the background job (M & lt; ()):
The stiffness factor (P) can vary from 0 to 1. The value of P, close to zero, means rigidity, and close to one - plasticity; P, equal to 0.5, is average.
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