Socio-psychological concepts of personality development in foreign and domestic psychology
Social psychology considers a person in the context of all the various social interactions, connections and involvement in various social groups. The creators of different theories saw the personality as a single whole, often not divorcing the dissimilar concepts of the various sciences of man and society.
The theoretical basis of Sigmund Freud's views was his conviction that man and society are always in a state of confrontation and hostility. The reason for this is poorly managed drives Id (It's "), which do not agree with the conditions of physical reality and social reality. Ego ("I") and Super-Ego ("Super-I") are only called to reconcile the drives with the requirements of reality, giving them a more or less acceptable form.
One of Freud's categorical socio-psychological concepts is "Super-I". It is this that makes up the personal content of the human psyche, because it includes a conscience that determines what is possible and permissible, the ideal "I" as an image to which one should strive. The concept of "Super-I" can be compared with the system of social attitudes of the individual. The role of the "Super-I" quot; is expressed in the fact that it is this quality of the human psyche that determines the nature of society. If the society is dominated by people with a strong, tough "Super-I", it becomes authoritarian.
The formation of social relations in society, according to Freud, depends on the relationship of the child with his mother and father. Relations with the mother constitute a prototype, or model, of how an adult person will correlate with society. The most characteristic feature of such a relationship is the ambivalence of feelings. The mother as a necessary condition for the existence of the child, the source of all positive emotions becomes the object of love. But it also embodies all kinds of restrictions and prohibitions and, in this capacity, turns for the child into an object of hostility, even hatred. Such ambivalence of feelings leaves its imprint on the relationship between the individual and society, in which both a sense of loyalty and a sense of hostility are combined.
The relationship of the child with the father is projected in the future on the relationship with the leader. As the leader can act not only a specific person, on and the power as a whole, even an idea. Both the father and the leader are given part of the functions "I", which means transferring the responsibility of the individual to him for certain actions.
Psychopathology of everyday life (1901); "Lectures on Introduction to Psychoanalysis" (1922); Totem & Taboo (1923); "The psychology of the masses and the analysis of the human" I " (1925); Me and Ono (1924); The Future of an Illusion (1927).As a result, Freud came to the conclusion that two beginnings in the human psyche lie at the basis of civilization: the instinct of life (Eros), energized libido and uniting people, and the death instinct (Thanatos) as a manifestation of man's aggressiveness, the hostility of all against all who interfere with the implementation of the program of civilization.
In the understanding of CG Jung, the decisive role in the social life of an individual is played by the collective unconscious, which has no relation to the individual fate of the individual and is inaccessible to cognition, to individual awareness.
For the Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler (1870-1937), the central concepts are the "lifestyle" and "social feeling". Lifestyle is determined by the desire of the individual to overcome the sense of inferiority that arises in each person due to certain organic flaws or negative mental experiences. Social feeling reflects the degree of people's interest in social solidarity, the goals of society and the meaning of life in general. This feeling sets the style of life, which with a harmonious combination of personal and public interests leads to successful compensation of the inferiority complex. The striving exclusively for superiority generates overcompensation, which, when the weaknesses of the personality manifest themselves, can be expressed in the form of withdrawal to the disease.
Erich Fromm properties, with which the personality is usually described, combines the notion of "character". The main criterion for character differentiation is the relation to the meaning of life. If a person is oriented toward self-realization, is able to experience happiness from the very fact of his active being, he has a productive character, indicating a successful combination of personal and public interests. All other types of characters ("market", "accumulative", "authoritarian", "necrophilic") - this is the "flight", the alienation of a person from himself, subordinating himself to something or someone and eventually - "escape from freedom". The dominant type of character in a particular society is the "social character" that defines the relationship between a person and society, between people.
Abraham Maslow believed that a person possesses an innate "basic nature", a kind of "psychological skeleton" and that the meaning of its development lies in the actualization of this nature. Man is initially assigned not only biological properties, but also those social qualities and needs, a system of values that are usually associated with the concept of "personality". Self-actualization is provided not so much by external influences as by "growth from within." Society, social conditions play a limited role in this process: their main task (humanistic) is not to hinder growth.
In domestic social psychology, BD Parygin proposed to consider two models of the personality structure: static and dynamic. A static structure is understood to be an abstract model abstracted from a really functioning individual , characterizing the main aspects, strata or components of the psyche of the individual. " Dynamic structure is understood as a "one-stage photograph of a person's mental state and behavior, which models the mechanisms of interconnection and interaction of all components and structural layers in the psyche of an individual." To isolate the parameters of the static structure, the author offers a single basis - the degree of representation of the components of the psyche in the structure of the personality. As a result, three categories are distinguished:
1) the universal mental properties of the individual (a necessary complex of basic mental properties and states that obey the psychophysiological mechanisms common to all people);
2) Socially-specific personality traits (socially-specific experience and its assimilation);
3) individually unique features specific to a particular person.
Through the notion of analyzing the selected parameters is the acquired experience (universal, socially-specific, individually unique).
To study the social-specific experience of the individual is necessary:
• through the social roles of the individual, "her rights and responsibilities, which are set by her social position";
• social norms, "rules and behaviors sanctioned and expected by social groups";
• value orientations of society, to some extent assimilated by the individual;
• Symbols as means of fixing an authorized value system, connecting the "rational meaning, subjective experience."
The assimilation of social experience takes the form of four consecutive stages: a) knowledge as a system of assimilated social meanings; b) socio-psychological stereotype of perception as a valence relation to the cultivated value; c) installation as a willingness, a predisposition to act in accordance with the meaning; d) motivation as the presence of motivation, sometimes volitional effort to overgrow the readiness into a real action. In the process of assimilation of social experience, the position changes
personality, its relation to the system of norms, rules, self-consciousness of the personality is formed.
Models of the dynamic structure of personality are constructed based on the existence of internal (introspective) and external (behavioral) aspects of the psyche, each of which can be either verbal or non-verbal. Equivalents of models are the psychic mood of the personality (represented by the emotional state and mindset, the system of motivation) and the stereotype of social behavior.
Q. A. Yadov justified the need to consider the "object-subject aspects of the personality ... as integrity ... in relation to the conditions of its activity, formed by previous experience and on the basis of its natural properties." In accordance with his dispositional concept of personality, the realization of human needs is possible under the appropriate conditions of activity, which are represented in the form of hierarchical systems. Appointment needs and situations (conditions) forms disposition (installation). A set of dispositions forms a hierarchical system. The first (lowest) level of dispositions are elementary fixed settings, formed on the basis of vital needs and in the simplest situations. The second level is socially fixed settings that are formed on the basis of social needs, inclusion of the individual in primary groups and specific situations. The highest level of dispositional hierarchy forms a system of value orientations for the purpose of life and the means of achieving them. This level of dispositions is formed on the basis of all social conditions of human life.
Domestic psychologist G. M. Andreeva argues that for social psychology, the main reference points in the study of personality are the relationship of the individual with a particular group and the result that results from this. On the one hand, it is necessary to study groups through which society affects the socialization of the individual, her life path. On the other hand, it is necessary to investigate the result of the influence of society on the personality, or the problem of social attitudes. G. M. Andreeva distinguishes three meaningful spheres in which personality formation takes place: activity, communication, self-awareness.
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