Drug misuse and addiction

Abstract

Drug abuse and dependency is a universal problem on the planet and is all over the place you look. With this disorder so common, the truth is shed on the myths that individuals have about substance abuse and dependency. This paper offers a brief overview of substance abuse and cravings, while also considering the aspects of epidemiology, pathophysiology, sociable problems, and honest issues that might present with crisis medical responders.

Addiction and misuse; exactly what does it mean; would you it affect? Cravings and abuse are often confused with one another. Abuse occurs whenever a substance is employed - usually liquor or illicit drugs - while on the other hand addiction can occur in a wide variety activities and substances. Addiction is thought as "compulsive need for and use of an habit-forming material (as heroin, nicotine, or alcohol) seen as a tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: prolonged use compulsive of an element known by an individual to be harmful". (http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/addiction) Cravings is not necessarily a habit-forming substances, it can also include specific things like sex, gambling, video games, or even the internet. Even so, the main focus of society continues to be on drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Some characteristics of the epidemiology and pathophysiology will be talked about combined with the social impacts that addiction could cause and any moral conditions that might be found with dependency and emergency medical service providers.

The analysis of addictive behavior is relatively young. According to Dr. Volkhow (2010) knowledge only began to study addictive action in the 1930s. Before this, scientists that were learning drug abuse were plagued with shadows of myths and common myths of the type of dependency. But with the discoveries today and with the information of how chemicals work in the brain and the ways it alters it you can find a better knowledge of drug and alcohol addiction. Matching to Dr. Dryden-Edwards (n. d. ) "Drug addiction, also called product dependence or substance dependency, is an illness that is characterized by a destructive pattern of substance abuse that causes significant problems relating tolerance to or drawback from the substance, and also other issues that use of the material can cause for the sufferer, either socially or in conditions of their work or university performance. A lot more than 2. 6% of men and women suffer from medicine addiction at some time in their life. " (http://www. medicinenet. com/drug_abuse/article. htm) Common chemicals that are abused and that become addicting are alcoholic beverages, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, level of caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens, inhalants, nicotine, opiates, phencyclidine, as well as sedative, hypnotic, or anti-anxiety drugs. Though medication and alcohol dependency is known as a mental- health problem, there is absolutely no single cause that can be determined. Though many people believe that mistreatment and dependency is a hereditary disease, this is bogus. There's a predisposition to develop the drug dependency scheduled to one's environment.

Epidemiology:

The communal risk factors for drug abuse and addiction include the male gender, being between that years eighteen and forty four, people of Native-American heritage, lower socioeconomic status, and unmarried marital position. According to convey information residents of the american United States tend to be susceptible to drug abuse and dependency. While men tend to be more prone to growing alcoholism, women seem to be more susceptible to alcoholism at lower amount of alcoholic beverages consumption, due to lessen average body mass that men. (Dryden-Edwards, n. d. ) The mixed medical, economic, legal, and cultural impact costs Americans upwards of half a trillion dollars yearly. Every year maltreatment of alcohol and drugs plays a part in the fatalities of 100, 000 People in america, with tobacco adding to an estimated 440, 000 deaths per year. Folks of all ages put up with the harmful implications of medication and alcohol mistreatment and addiction. Babies can be influenced while still in the mother's womb if she actually is to make use of drugs or alcohol, that may cause birth defects and decrease the intellectual development in their later life. Children often respond out, perform terribly in school and often drop out if they are abusing drugs. They may be more vulnerable or unplanned pregnancies, infectious diseases, and assault. Parents and parents are also influenced, often clouding their cognitive talents. Challenging exposure, the level is defined for the next era to step right into the addictive lifestyle.

Pathophysiology:

Addiction mainly influences the mind, but affects cascade within a person's organ systems. Drugs and head altering substances that can be abused target the body's natural incentive system either purposefully or unintentionally leading to total euphoric effects for the user. These effects come from the dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates activity, cognition, emotion, feelings of pleasure, and drive. Dopamine is released naturally to reward your body for natural behaviors and initiates a routine to replicate the habit. The dopamine neurotransmitter floods the praise system that is usually secreted in limited quantities from routine activities such as eating or even making love. The brain views this as a life-sustaining activity because of the praise system being turned on. When the substance is introduced into a person's system and the euphoric effects are achieved, the individual's brain makes a note that some important event is happening and it instructs itself to get this done action again and again as a drive of habit. (Volkhow 2010) The taking associated with an illicit drug can cause a person to do something on impulse when the reasons system of the brain would delay or prevent an action. This system is bypassed, resulting in an undesired activity that could have a negative result on the user's life. While some of the effects of drugs and chemical substances are euphoric sometimes, other times the element can cause paranoia, depression, and suicidal thoughts. (Dryden-Edwards n. d. ) If use of the medicine continues, the brain becomes acclimated to the influx of dopamine in the compensation system. This leads to the reduced amount of release of dopamine and the amount of dopamine receptors in the machine itself. This in turn impacts the user's potential to attain the desired ramifications of the used medication. This response by the individual's brain triggers them to try to reactivate the receptors by increasing the total amount or dose of the medicine to achieve the same dopamine high. This effect is known as a tolerance. With long-term mistreatment of a medication, changes occur to other systems in the brain. The neurotransmitter glutamate - which also is part of the praise systems - can be improved which causes an inability to learn. When the perfect degree of glutamate is off balance the mind attempts to pay, which in turn affects the user's cognitive function. (NIDA 2011) When the brain has become familiar with the effect of the drug, dependence is created and cessation of the drug abuse will cause an event known as withdrawal. While most symptoms of withdrawal are in most unpleasant for an addict, there's also some serious symptoms that range from tonic-clonic seizures, myocardial infarction, heart stroke, hallucinations, and delirium tremens. (Melemis 2011)

Social, Ethical Issues as well as the Effect on EMS:

The consequences of habit and mistreatment are evident in a person's communal life. The destructive behavior of dependency affects from work with their personal life, even right from the start of the maltreatment. The signals of dependency from the physical stand point add a changing of sleeping patterns and changes in eating habits, which contribute to both weight loss and weight gain. Recurrent substance abuse leads to the lack of meeting important commitments at home, university, or work. (Dryden-Edwards) Other affects of addiction range from family disintegration, domestic violence, child abuse, failure in university, and lack of employment. Content with addictions tend to be risk takers and excitement seekers. With the changes in the praise system of the mind, the subject desires a positive effect before they take a material which satisfies their dependence on risk or thrills. Impulse control is hard when their medication of choice is approximately people with craving. This feeds the craving even more. (Nash & Johnson, 2007)

The effect on the disaster medical services is immeasurable. The calling caused by dependency can vary from trauma to a medical overdose. The role of the emergency medical provider in calls for an overdose patient requires the paramedic to discover what and how much the individual took, and what the proper medication is to invert the condition that the patient is currently experiencing. Along with the calls comes the danger. With possible violent outbreaks by addicts, the paramedic should be aware of his / her surroundings while trying to calm the individual. Patients experiencing withdrawals can hallucinate an entire event and incorporate the paramedic in it, leading to the patient to become violent towards their attention provider. Habit is an extremely dangerous condition and can be considered a psychiatric problem, which must be treated with a certain diligence and suspicion.

In the realm of EMS the incident of calls for addiction are uncommon since it isn't really a crisis situation. The occasion will arise if a patient is experiencing violent symptoms of withdrawal or has overdosed on the substance. The individual could look like in an agitated condition or even be unconscious. There is no predetermined way to take care of a patient experiencing addiction related problems. They main key is to take care of the patient's symptoms. All patients need to be put on supplemental air via nonrebreather if it can be tolerated. Intravenous gain access to should be obtained with an infusion of normal saline to help eliminate out the patient's system. If the patient is in an agitated talk about or seizing, a sedative should be given, such as valium or versed. Beware, with the administration of benzodiazepines the risk of breathing depression or failing exists. If the patient is experiencing an overdose of an opiate and their respiration is shallow or nonexistent the administration of Narcan 0. 4 to 2 milligrams, but beware to manage this drug gradually and titrate it to where in fact the patient can inhale sufficient to preserve life. If airway and difficulty in breathing persist then intubation is highly recommended to secure the patient's airway. Swift transport with due regard is suggested so the patient can be evaluated and the hospital staff can start their detoxification.

The world of habit is severe and unforgiving if one is not happy to leave it behind. Some people say that dependency is all in the top, and my research verifies this. The impacts on the brain from forming a learned behavior is rewarded in much the same way such as eating or drinking. The prize system pretty much gets ruined by the drugs or chemicals being employed by the influx of neurotransmitters released. With the receptors becoming desensitized, the topic should increase the absorption of the compound to attain their high. The repercussions of the misuse and addiction become noticeable after time when the violence and compulsiveness gets control. The physical tolls, including depression and disorder can be devastating at times. The only way to decrease substance abuse and craving is to teach the public. The very best elimination is avoidance.

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