Early adulthood, Tasks of development of early adulthood - Psychology

Early adulthood

Tasks of development of early adulthood

The period of early adulthood (about 20-35/40 years) is characterized by the completion of the transition from adolescence to the status of adulthood. In this age phase, a person finishes his studies, joins work, marries, leads children, determines the general way of life and specific tasks for the future, establishes a circle of friends of varying degrees of intimacy, corrects value orientations in accordance with the new "adult" status and new life plans. In all spheres, the desire for expansion and achievements is manifested, as K. Jung wrote. However, the experience of adult life is still small, so a young man sometimes acts impulsively, thoughtlessly, making mistakes, making wrong decisions and making wrong choices. The main goal of youth, according to A. Tolstoy, is to realize the opportunities for self-development.

According to the adult development model developed by the American gerontologist Robert Heywigherst, the tasks of early adulthood are: choice of spouse, preparation for marriage, family creation, parenting, housekeeping, commencement of professional activity, acceptance of civil liability, social group.

A person in the period of early adulthood faces the need to choose and solve many problems. This ethane of the life path is full of significant events that somehow influence the course of life. According to E. Erikson, the main problem that needs to be solved is the contradiction between proximity and isolation.

Proximity requires the establishment of mutually satisfying close relationships with another person, which are possible only when identity is achieved, when there is no risk of losing oneself with one another. If a person at this stage is not able to establish deep personal ties, to achieve reciprocity, then, feeling a barrier between himself and others, he will experience isolation.

According to the study of the American psychologist D. Levinson, in order to fully become an adult, a young man must cope with four problems arising in the development process:

1) to reconcile dreams with reality;

2) find a mentor;

3) secure a career;

4) establish an intimate relationship.

At the first stage of the early adulthood period, dreams are loosely related to reality, but their availability is very important for development, since their most important aspect is the ability to inspire a man in his current activities. In the ideal case, a young man begins to build his adult life, given the reality, treating everything with reasonable optimism. Unfounded fantasies and completely unattainable goals do not promote growth. In the implementation of dreams, a great help can be given by a mentor capable of instilling confidence in a young man, approving a dream and transferring skill and life experience. The main function of the mentor is to provide a transition from the parent-child relationship to the peer relationship: adult-adult. The solution of the problem of building a career goes far beyond the mere choice of a profession and is connected with the achievement of self-determination during adulthood. Establishing close relationships is also very important for a young man: he replenishes his baggage of knowledge about himself and about relationships with women, finds out his strengths and weaknesses. It is extremely important, according to D. Levinson, the first connection with the especial a woman who helps him to enter the adult world, encouraging his hopes, facilitating the realization of the dream, forcing the partner to feel like a hero.

Preliminary results of the study by D. Levinson of a group of women show that their entry into adulthood consists of the same four tasks that men solve, but the experience of women differs significantly from that of men. If the male dreams about the future as a whole are homogeneous and related to work, then women's dreams are inherent in the split: they seek to combine career and marriage. Even when colleagues and family members believe that women have succeeded, they themselves feel that they are sacrificing either a career or a family. Although the presence of a mentor is important for both career and life, women rarely find someone who would help them realize their dreams. Women also later, compared to men, arrange their careers for a long time in the period of "professional apprenticeship".

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