Effect of Biological and Community Influences on Development

  • Gemma L Sobah

Evaluate the contribution of natural and social affects to human mental functioning


As humans, our psychological functioning is essential to our success and succession. Just what exactly do we suggest by psychological functioning? Psychological working is how our thoughts work. It offers our thoughts, thoughts and emotions. Humans are thinkers and feelers. Our worlds develop around, our thoughts, our thoughts, and our desires and dreams. How exactly we view the world, and how exactly we feel the world views us. Were influenced by our feelings, our morals and our understanding of the individuals and world all around us. Every experience inside our life has the capacity to impact our mental functions. In this article we will be taking a look at development and love-making and gender.

Charles Darwin was an evolutionary psychologist. He argued and believed that we have certain behaviours which may have evolved and designed because of how they benefit our survival and there for increased the probability of transferring them on genetically. Darwin (1859) exhibited the theory that genetics and evolution play an important part in influencing mental performing through natural selection. Evolutionary mindset claims that our brains (which include the mind) advanced to have the ability to problem solve, which many of our hunter-gatherer ancestors came across.

A point of view known as the functionalism point of view was an idea that developed explanations for why people's behaviour changed. It was presumed that it was for an adaptive cause, and for that reason has a 'function' to provide. Darwin argued these changed came about because they proved to increase likelihood of survival and were therefore selectively chosen through progression. So relating to Darwin, we do certain things and react certain ways even as develop, not because we have had certain experiences in our life's which may have impacted us and designed the way we see things, and also have a direct effect along the way we respond, but because genetically we've evolved and have certain characteristics and behaviours that will aid our success. Therefore, those individuals displaying behaviours that will have a poor influence on their survival have no developed the necessary features and skills through natural selection.

Although this process does give insight into how genetically we've been designed to take action a certain way, and be certain people, the downfall to it is to the level to which it could be applied. It does not explain how advancement has genetically altered us to act certain ways emotionally. It doesn't will go as far showing how a girl who was created a guy, can grow to live her life as both genders and it haven't any negative affect on her behalf mental health. Furthermore it does not give insight concerning how she became this way rather than another thing. But social influences could prove to have contributed to her present state of head and mental health.

From an early age we ingest and absorb things that happen all around us, and studies have exhibited how the communal influences in our life at a young age, make a difference our adult lives.

In 1996, Schaffer, (as cited in Lumber et al, pg. 9), discussed that social affects, such as our peer or sibling romantic relationships, are incredibly influential in our development. He records that they spend a lot of time in each other's company, and in this time they will notice each other's behaviour, and they will share many experience, and it has been known that their connections are very psychologically based. These kinds of sibling associations could have all sorts of affects on our development, both positive and negative. Siblings of an identical age may be more more likely to have a camaraderie, because they will be increased in similar things from how old they are group, giving them more in keeping with one another. But this could also signify more potential for rivalry, for who may have what toy plus they may also battle for the interest with their parents.

The positive area of this kind of romantic relationship are that they could learn things from the other sibling, like the meaning of sharing, they experience thoughts that they may not if indeed they only siblings much aged. For instance, two boy's age range 7, and 9 both seek the attention of the parents, but their parents are too occupied thinking where their more mature sister of 16 is. They can them empathise with each other and understand how each other are feelings. They can be each other's company when they want attention. And unit each other when they are sad. This could draw out a caring part of them, permitting them to fill roles they might not fill if they only had elderly siblings or was an only child. In later life, as they develop further, they may then bring with them a nurturing nurturing side that they encounters as a kid.

The negative aspect of the kind of sociable effect are that there might potentially be a whole lot of rivalry between them. Which one gets the most parent-child attention, which has got the most/best toys? They could develop up feeling unfulfilled and needy.

In 1986, Abramovitch, Corter, Pepler, and Stanthorpe, conducted an observational analysis on siblings which unveiled to them, 'that their relationships are diverse and multifaceted'. (Wood et al, pg. 9, 2007). Even as can easily see from the example above, and as the observational research shown, there are many attributes to a sibling marriage but they all have the potential to have an impact on our future. Biologically there a wide range of distinctions between a sibling and sister, i. e. a girl and young man. The obvious one being our genitals, but as we go more comprehensive we will see that hormonally we will vary, and our bodies have different advantages and weaknesses. But can the natural gender difference create cognitive and behavioural distinctions too? Money and Erhardt 1972 (as cited in Hollway et al, pg. 141, 2007, ) conducted a report to try and answer this question. They conducted a study where they shown young girls to the medicine progestin, to look at the masculinization of the girls after taking the medication, compared to young girls who hadn't considered the medicine and females with hyperplasia which impacts the level of testosterone. They exposed that the girls with hyperplasia and those exposed to progestin, appeared to are more 'tomboyish' which means to play like a boy, prefer young boys clothing, and that they performed more energetically than the girls with no alteration to their hormone levels.

So it made an appearance that the biological changes to the girls mixed up in study, slightly altered their preference to 'girlish' or 'boyish' things. The girls seemed to become more masculine than the unaffected young girls. Nevertheless it does indeed cause the question regarding the trustworthiness of the results. In this point in time, it isn't frowned upon the maximum amount of for a woman to play with toys which were intended for a guy, and with the changes within the sociable world, less and less brands are being put on what is 'for young ladies' and 'for guys. '

The reliability of the test also comes down from what the parents, who provided the report regarding the changes in the girls, see as 'boyish' or 'girlish'. It could have been less of the biological influence on the girls and more of an individual evaluation of boyish or girlish.

Therefore, to conclude, there are extensive perspectives within mindset that try and describe behaviours and their roots but not one has overall explanatory power over the others, rather they depend on each other and everything hook up somehow.

Only with some types of psychology which contradict each other (nature-nurture question), connect with one another or expand on one another (biological and interpersonal psychologist), can we recognise and make appropriate alternatives when problems occur so we maintain a wholesome body and mind.

There are numerous different perspectives which go to show how complex individual behavior is. The evolutionary theory will don't are the experiences we have as humans, but it concentrates more on being preordained in its methods and capacity to provide evidence. The attachment theory concentrates too much on years as a child and parental discussion. In doing this, it loses look of the role biology and how our genetic makeup could account for certain behaviours.

The biological perspective views humans as a set of musical instruments and physical buildings that are obviously important and significant (e. g. genes). Furthermore, it does not consider our conscious minds and how the overall influence of the public world on our behavior. Our adult lives tend to be a mixture of what we experience and find out as a child, how our hereditary makeup produces in us even as grow and exactly how our conscious head, interprets and is aware of the earth we reside in and forms its own a reaction to it. We are not influences by simply one thing, but many, constantly and gradually.

Word count number: 1, 455


Hollway, W. , Cooper, T. , Johnston, A. , and Stevens, J. (2007) The Mindset of Love-making and Gender in Cooper, T. and Roth, I. (2007) Challenging Psychological Issues, 2nd ed. Milton Keynes. The Open University

Wood, D. , Littleton, K. and Oates, J. (2007) Life span Development in Cooper, T. and Roth, I. (2007) Challenging Psychological Issues: Lifespan development, 2nd ed. Milton Keynes. The Start University

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