Effects of Parental Divorce on Childrens Growth

Divorce is becoming an important communal issue which can't be ignored and averted. In middle-19th century, only 5% of the marriages were broken in america, and now almost 50% of first marriages were ended in divorce, there were 100 million children who experienced parental divorce in the United States, in Great britain and Wales, more than 140, 007 children were facing parental separation every year. The children of this kind have grown to be an important area of the 'vulnerable group' in society, which also appeals to the attention of many scholars'. A lot of social evidence implies that the psychological injury which the breakdown of a family brings children is clear and will can be found for a long term. Relevant scholars' sociological research also confirmed that divorce acquired a negative impact on the cognitive development, personality development, mental health, human relationships, social patterns development and other aspects of Children's. To explore the affect of parental divorce on children's development trajectory, this essay assessed relevant literatures and conducted a crucial analysis towards the literatures.

Chapter II Discussion

Through researching relevant academic literatures on divorce, research on the impact of divorce on children's development included the next contents.

2. 1 Cognitive levels and academics performance

Research (Amans et al, 2001) revealed that there was a very significant difference in regions of cognition, reasoning and educational accomplishment between children in divorced families and complete families, the impact of divorce on children's learning performance was the most, the effect on cognition was less than the effect on academic achievements, the effect on the non-text rational reasoning was minimal. There is no significant difference in the cognitive aspects between your children of different genders in divorced families, and the ladies' academic performance was significantly better than the kids'. Degrees of cognitive development and academics performance of seven, eight or nine season old children's from divorced people were significantly lower than the children's from complete young families. Amato (2001) used Meta analysis in his review. Meta analysis identifies using a volume of statistical methods to analyze the accumulated research data. Its benefits is to increase the reliability of conclusions through increasing test sizes, in order to address the inconsistency of findings. The conclusion of Amans' research (Amans et al, 2001) was also predicated on Meta research, he used appropriate statistical to conduct systematic, objective and complete quantitative analysis towards lots of relevant research brings about 1990s and found that the ratings of learning of children's in divorced households were significantly less than the children's from complete young families, he remarked that this space was increased just a bit in comparison to the situation in 1980.

2. 2 Psychological development and personality development

Amato's (2001) study exhibited that children from solo parent individuals were less able to control themselves and their examination for themselves was too high. There were a higher percentage of children who were excessive in their feeling, feelings and personality, their specific performance included preferring crying, despair, irritability, anger, dread, etc. , their bad figure included low self-esteem, unsociability, poor self-control capacity, frailty, resting, cheating, apathy, stress, etc. , but most them had a solid self-reliance. Children whose parents were separated got significantly polarized introversive or exoscopic people, and most of them possessed singly introversive or exoscopic personalities, and bulk children who have been from complete family members got the intermediate personalities. The study method which Amato (2001) adopted was Meta examination, by comparing conclusions of a large range of research he discovered that, in fact, there is difference between children who grew up in complete people and children who was raised in single parent families, but the difference had not been as big as what usually dreamed. His (Amato, 2001)research revealed that parental divorce was only one factor in the procedure of a child's growth, there were other factors that could influence a child's progress, but his research didn't specify what these other factors were.

2. 3 Mental health

Relevant research (Aaron et al, 1999) has suggested that there was factor in the overall levels of mental health between children from divorced individuals and children from complete people, children with solo parent possessed more mental problems, including tendency of a significant loneliness, unwilling contacting with people, trend of self-accusation and presenting low evaluations for individual abilities and characteristics, strong emotions of inferiority, evident panic, lacks of confidence in interpersonal romantic relationships, lacks of security, inclination of serious impulsions, etc. , many children often believed stressed out, irritable and had extreme behavior, their physical symptoms which induced by subconscious problems were more evident. Relevant research (Aaron et al, 1999) also explained this phenomenon, because the children's parents divorced, they lacked parental encouragement, when confronted with setbacks, they couldn't get strong bonuses, resulting in a lack of self-confidence. And because of parental divorce, it triggered the reduction of parents' regarding about the kids, insufficient communication using their children and failing woefully to detect changes in the children life and thought would lead to the children's failing woefully to deal with the problems regularly, thereby leading to major depression, irritability and other feelings.

2. 4 Interpersonal relationship

The research on the interpersonal romantic relationship of children's from divorced households was mainly completed in the areas of peer relationship, parent-child romance and control ability. Study shows that judging from the perspectives of peer relationship, subjective and objective control talents, children with single parent had not been as effective as the children's from complete households. In terms of parent-child romantic relationship, children with one parent weren't content with their parents and family members, their relationship using their parents wasn't as effective as the children's from complete young families. Even though they was raised, they still revealed their distrust towards their parents, as Jacquet and Surra (2001) found in their analysis that even taking full factor of the quality of parent-child romantic relationship, the adult children still got a strong sense of distrust. Furthermore, parents divorce also possessed a profound influence on the children's creating a close romance with their lovers when they was raised. Jacquet and Surra (2001) had taken young couples of 19- 35 years old as research things and investigated the determinacy of the relationship between them and their cognition and understanding towards the issues between them, they discovered that women from divorced family members had a sense of lack of trust and satisfaction, displaying ambivalent feelings and conflicts. Although there was no difference between your men from divorced households and the men from complete families (Emery, 1999), but because of the marital position of their own parents', the former thought that the partnership between couples was temporary. Thus, parental separation not only affects children's close romantic relationship with their parents, but also has a negative impact on the children's creating their own seductive interactions when they expand up, the impact of parental parting on children's knowledge of interpersonal romantic relationship is negative and long term, making the children show great adaptability in dealing with interpersonal romance.

2. 5 Action problems

Study (Jeynes, 2001) proved that the situation tendencies of children's from divorced families was more than children's from complete individuals, the behavior included lying down, cheating, bragging and boast, poor university performance and fearing of school, etc. There was a very close romance between children's Internet habit and their divorced individuals. Jeynes (2001) investigated the children's alcohol problems after their parents divorced and discovered that compared with the kids whose parents have divorced for more than 4 years, the kids whose parents divorced recently had the same regularity of drinking, the amount of the children who indulged in taking in was increased, plus they were more likely to be affected by alcohol, the frequency and level of the two sets of the children who addicted taking in were more than the kids from complete households (Jeynes, 2001), the children who didn't have complete households were more likely to drink and afflicted by alcohol. The best significance of Jeynes' research (2001) did not lay in confirming that children of divorced young families were more likely to drink than children of complete households, but proving that both children whose parents divorced four years ago and the kids whose parents divorced recently acquired the same occurrence of drinking, therefore refuting a lot of people opinion of convinced that divorce only had a direct effect on children at the time when their parents divorced, it further established that the influence of parental divorce on children would be lasted for a long period.

Chapter III Conclusion

Through literature review, this essay summarized the impact of divorce on children's development and tried to learn the problems existing in relevant study and explore the directions of future research.

The above-mentioned research on children of solo parent families especially concerned about adolescents, especially callan, there was less review on small children. Therefore, it will seek for evaluation means which is suited to the characteristics of babies and preschool children, paying more attention to their internal development and version.

The earlier research on children who were from divorced individuals generally likened the habit problems between children from divorced families and complete young families, or by statistical methods to control other household variables to look at the direct impact of parental parting on children's action problems. The study has provided an abundance of useful information, but often overlooked the impact of other family variables in the divorce process on children. Thus future research shouldn't only matter about the impact of divorce itself on children, but also focus on the role of other variables relate with divorce, including the quality of parent-child relationship, the marriage conflicts before divorce and during parental parting, the living conditions of children after their parents divorce, etc. It will pay a special attention to the changes of the internal mechanism which affects the children's adaptability.

Research on Children from divorced families was largely transverse study, few was longitudinal research. Children's development is a process, only with respect to the existing transverse study is difficult to explore the impact of parents' separation on children's development of different phases and its own change process. Therefore, the partnership between parents' divorce and children's development needs to be examined with a specific and tracked research which is the condition needs to be solved in future analysis.

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