Emotional development of a child
Associative psychologists stressed that all forms of mental life require a certain period for their development. This applies to both perception, feelings, and volitional processes, which are primarily associated with movements.
Emotional processes are subject to the same patterns as intellectual ones. Although they differ from each other, but in both cases the law of associations operates. Moreover, the primary sensations are always accompanied by an emotional element. In this regard, associative psychologists talked about the unity of intellectual and emotional components. The presence of an emotional component refers not only to sensations, but also to the process of attention. So, excessive attention causes negative emotions, and moderate - positive. Similarly, emotions are accompanied by the process of perception.
In the first stages of the development of the psyche, you can clearly see the presence of expressive emotional reactions, which indicate that all the impressions received by the child are emotionally colored. At the age of three to four months, the emotional sensations associated with the development of the sense organs begin to emerge (for example, infants enjoy the tactile sensations associated with a soft toy). In process of development of perception the elementary emotional conditions accompanying this or that image arise: experience of pavor, tenderness, etc. In other words, the simplest emotional states are associated with images. In this case, since experiences are tied to the image, changing the image leads to a change in the emotional state. Therefore, on the one hand, it is easy for a child to evoke an emotional experience, and on the other hand, it is very unstable. The ability of children's emotions to stop suddenly is also a consequence of their dependence on sensory impressions (for example, a new toy can cause a child to react joyfully, even if a minute ago he cried at the top of his voice).
Against the background of various emotional experiences, the experience of one's own self gradually begins to be singled out. It is based on the association of various forms of the child's experiences related to his own self. This leads to the formation of an emotional image of himself and the development of the personality.
Development of images and concepts
Any object causes the child to have a set of different impressions. For example, an apple can awaken a flavoring impression when eating, and at the same time a tactile impression when it holds, as well as visual impressions, when on it looks. Whenever a child eats an apple, he encounters an approximately equal set of impressions or with the same identical set of sensations. This leads to the fact that as the accumulation of such cases, the child establishes a stable relationship between these experiences. Such a connection was called a "complex of sensations."
The complex of sensations began to be understood as the image that arises in the mind of the child (for example, when the child interacts with the apple). From the point of view of associative psychologists, the number of images that arise in a child is explained by experience. A child who has had a limited number of interactions with an object has less experience. The child who interacted with the object more often has more experience. A child who has not interacted with an object at all has no experience. The more the child interacted with a large number of objects, the richer his experience. According to the associative position, the first images were formed in the child during the first year of life. The presence of such images allowed the child not only to interact with the object, but also to recognize it. Since the complex was a collection of sensations, it was enough to create it, so that some part appeared. The more the child interacted with the object, the easier it was for him to recognize the object. The presence of such images allowed us to say not only that the child had accumulated experience, but also that the child had such an ability that associative psychologists called perception.
A child does not just perceive different objects, but he also hears the names of these objects. Due to this, a connection is established between the word and the image. This connection allows the child not only to perceive the object, but also to know what it is called. As an example, there are cases when a child answers questions from parents. For example, when a child is told "Show me where the dog is", the child looks around and points at the dog. The mechanism of such behavior of the child is that the word dog enters into a complex complex that includes a set of sensations that have arisen due to the multiple effects of stimuli on the senses when meeting with a real dog (ie the image of a dog) and a word. Naming adults the word leads to the fact that in response to sound stimulation (a sounding word) in the child's mind, the image of the dog emerges and the child compares it to what is around it until he finds the object that delivers a similar complex of impressions, . real dog.
This process is not only a process of perception, but also a process of recognition. The difference between perception and recognition is that perception is the gradual folding of images into stable complexes of sensations, and recognition is based on applying already ready, established, stored in the child's memory images to identify the incoming sensations.
After the complex of sensations (image) has become sufficiently designed, stable, this image becomes an image of memory and can appear in the child's mind. Such images of memory arise in the first year of life and are called representations. Psychologists stressed that the same word the adult calls different objects. For example, the word birdie an adult calls both a sparrow, a crow, and a dove. After the child has fixed different images of birds (one for a sparrow, another for a crow or a dove), thanks to the interaction with the adult, they (the images) begin to refer to the same word ("bird"). As a result, children have a generalized idea of the bird. Such a generalized representation reflects the basic properties of birds (birds fly, they have wings, feathers, etc.).
The appearance of generalized representations indicates the development of another ability of the child - ability to judge or generalization. It is important that the generalized view is associated with the word. In this case, a concept appears. Seeing an object, for example a chamomile, the child takes it to the corresponding generalized view and says: "This is a flower". Similarly, a child can judge a variety of objects. The mechanism of judgment turns out to be similar: the presence of the concept (ie, the word and the generalized representation associated with it) makes it possible to compare sensations from an existing object (or its image) to a generalized representation. The development of the ability to judge is characteristic of preschool age. At this age, the vocabulary of children dramatically increases, and preschoolers begin to judge the surrounding objects, calling them.
The main condition for the development of the ability to judge is that the child must be able to compare the image of a particular object with a generalized representation. Comparison can be done with the help of mental operations: analysis and comparison. According to the associative concept analysis is the ability to isolate a separate feature of an object from the complex of many of its characteristics. Comparison is a child's ability to match a selected attribute with another attribute. Thus, the presence of generalized notions speaks not only of the ability of judgment, but also of the development of the child's thinking. The content of the concept includes the reflection of many sensory qualities that are grouped into a generalized image. Among these qualities, qualities are significant and inessential. From this it follows that in the concept it is necessary to allocate the essential, i.e. those most important qualities that characterize this concept. Hence the problem of imperfections of concepts. It is associated either with the indistinctness of the representations of children, or with the inclusion in them of qualities that do not correspond to the content of the concept. From imperfection of concepts follows imperfection of children's judgments.
At the younger school age, the children begin to develop the ability to reason. The ability to reason is that children can build a third judgment on the basis of two judgments. Let's give an example of the simplest reasoning: "All butterflies fly. Machaon is a butterfly. Hence, the machaon flies. " In accordance with the approach of associative psychologists, the development of the ability to judge is determined by the quantitative accumulation of generalized ideas about different objects. That is, it develops with experience during the child's learning in school and in the course of his interaction with the surrounding reality.
Thus, if we look at the development of children's consciousness from the point of view of associative psychology, we see the following: first the child has a sensation, then perception, then there are memories, representations, generalizations, concepts and, in the end, the ability to reasoning.
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