Emotional disorders (affects, stresses)
Emotions are normal, moreover, necessary in human life phenomenon, and if a person loses the ability to experience, emotionally perceive what is happening, then his life loses its meaning, depreciates, becomes uninteresting and joyless. But if, on the contrary, a person's emotions are too strong, inadequate, prevent him from acting reasonably, if emotions are disorganized, his behavior is uncontrollable, then this is also not normal. Emotions should be moderate, not too weak and not too strong, proportional to the events that cause them, optimizing human activity.
Where is the border, or the psychological norm, of emotional optimality for man?
It is probably relative and conditional for each person, practically depends on many reasons: from the situation, on the strength of human needs, on its individual characteristics, on obstacles that arise on the way of achieving the goal, etc.
The most reliable and reliable criteria for the optimality of emotional saturation of a person's life is his own state of health. If, with emotions that are almost not expressed externally, or, on the contrary, when their external and internal manifestations are strong enough, a person feels physically and psychologically quite satisfactory, which means that everything is in order with his emotional life. However, if emotions prevent a person from living normally and achieving their goals, if he is experiencing about the weakness of his emotions or, on the contrary, wants to get rid of them (since he thinks that they are too strong), then one can conclude that in emotional the life of this person really has problems that need to be addressed.
Clients' complaints about emotional problems are typical enough.
- They refer to the inability to regulate their emotional experiences, for example, their too frequent occurrence or excessive external expression. Once in the grip of emotions, customers are not able to act properly and make reasonable decisions.
- Point out the lack of normal emotional reactions to what happens to them and around them (lack of emotions where they should appear).
- Complain about the inadequacy of emotional reactions. This is the case when the power of emotions does not fully correspond to the cause that causes them. For example, in the slightest disturbance of the normal course of things, they are too violent to appear on relatively small obstacles to the achievement of the goal, or, on the contrary, where they are experiencing, they show indifference.
- Frequent and sufficiently strong emotional experiences in them cause physical or psychological malaise. This can be manifested, for example, in functional disorders of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system, in neuroses.
When learning to control one's emotions, one should know the following. Firstly, the fact that emotions usually arise suddenly, first grow and develop at a subconscious level and appear externally when something is done with them by a person that is practically not able, especially if it deals with emotions such as affect or stress. Secondly, when a strong enough emotion, which can not be eliminated or reduced immediately, has already arisen and embraced a person, he is not able to realize what is happening and completely control himself. At this point in time, he does not even understand that he behaves unreasonably and reacts inappropriately to what is happening. In this state, as a rule, he generally "does not remember" how to behave, does not realize that it is necessary to control his emotions, he does not realize that he can not control his behavior. His consciousness seems to be turned off for a while.
To counteract this behavior, which actually represents a not fully realized, semi-automatic reaction to what is happening around, you can only do the same: the same fast, strong and almost automatic counter-reaction that either prevents the occurrence of an emotion or blocks it, preventing spread.
With a client in a situation of this kind, it is necessary to work as follows. First, the client should try to convince himself that neither himself nor anyone else is likely to manage simply and quickly the emotional problem that has arisen, since it is a matter of forming a completely new and simultaneously destroying an old, fairly ingrained habit , and this is a difficult and long business. Secondly, the client needs to be assured that in regulating his emotions he can still succeed if he has patience and will be persistent enough.
After the client has comprehended the problem, it will be possible to start implementing the following practical steps aimed at solving the problem posed.
1. Together with the client, analyze the conditions and typical situations in which the client has uncontrollable emotions.
2. Choose from these situations one or two such that appear more often than others, and direct their efforts to regulate emotions in these situations.
3. Carefully study how these situations arise and evolve, paying special attention to the moments when emotions are just beginning to emerge and just starting to become unmanageable.
4 . Pripyat a reasonable, informed decision about when to act best to successfully prevent the occurrence of undesirable emotions. It is best to do this at the beginning of the emergence of an appropriate emotional situation - when a person is still able to act and reason intelligently.
5. Find such signs, in time having discovered which, you can still take effective measures to prevent the danger of uncontrolled emotions.
This may be, for example, an object that a person always carries with him and who will necessarily be in his hands at a time when he has to deal with a case capable of generating inadequate emotional reactions. It can also be some condition, a learned movement, a position of the hand consciously associated with the need to control one's own emotional states.
6. Develop new habits that are useful for preventing uncontrollable emotions, bringing them to the level of automatism. It is best if these habits begin to act immediately and in any situation that can generate an uncontrollable emotion.
If a client complains about the lack of an adequate situation of emotional reactions, then first of all it is necessary to explain to the client that the absence or weak expression of emotions in itself does not represent a problem requiring psychological correction. This is true both for those cases when a person, by the type of his temperament, refers, for example, to phlegmatic or melancholic persons, and for those life situations when something or someone simply does not interest the person and the absence of emotions in connection with him with this it is necessary to consider as quite normal phenomenon. Justified anxiety should be caused only by such cases of life when the current situation, the given person, object or event causes the absolute majority of people to have a distinct emotional reaction, which for some reason does not arise with the client.
In this case, you first need to carefully understand what is going on in order to make the right, psychologically sound decision. It may be, for example, that a given person has in his character accentuations of a certain type and, according to their characteristics, refers to people, for example, a schizoid psychological storehouse - one for which the weakness of emotions is quite natural. In this case, such a person in communication with him should just get used to, as it is almost impossible to change the characteristics of his emotional response to what is happening. They are usually associated with the temperament of a person and are based on the genotype. Neither one nor the other will not give in to serious correction in the process of life. Strictly speaking, in most cases this should not be done, since a weak expression of emotions, if it is typical and normal, helps a person to be judicious, seasoned, calm, and this is a very valuable positive personality trait.
If the client is temperamentally and character-like in nature and does not belong to this type of people and nevertheless clearly differs in weak emotion, then we can conclude that he really has a problem of emotional-expressive type. Most often its existence is associated with one of the following reasons: with accumulated fatigue, with troubles, with frustration, with changes in the needs of the person, with partial or complete loss of previous interests.
In the first of these cases, it is enough just to have a good rest to completely restore normal emotional reactions to what is happening. In the second case it is necessary to struggle with troubles, failures, learn to prevent the emergence of a state of frustration, otherwise it will be difficult to expect normalization of emotional life. In the third of these cases, it will be necessary to restore lost interests, needs, or, if this fails to do so, try to accept the fact that the motivation has changed and adapt to it.
The inadequacy of emotional reactions as a personal problem of the client can also be associated with one of the above reasons, and in this case it will be necessary to combat it with the previously indicated means.
Quite often, however, the inadequacy of the client's emotional reaction to what is happening represents a special, strictly individual problem in the sense of the word that is the conditioned personality of the client, his motivational or general emotional instability. In this case, the client behaves emotionally unpredictably, and it is almost difficult to determine whether he has any sustainable interests. In some situations, it can react positively to one event, in other situations - negatively, in the third situations - it does not matter.
If this is the case, then to this person it is just necessary to get used to and accept it as it is, until it stabilizes its interests. But even in this case, one can hardly rely on the constancy of his emotional reactions, since motivational and emotional instability is a very persistent personality trait.
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