Emotional problems in adolescence
Emotional problems in transition to secondary school. About the emotional problems of adolescents, many books and articles are written, so here we will not elaborate on them in detail, but confine ourselves to a brief description of both the problems themselves and the psychological- pedagogical means of help to adolescents.
So, the transition to secondary school is different in the appearance of a number of emotional difficulties in younger adolescents. Many of them are associated with a decline in self-esteem , caused by a change in the former situation of the child's schooling. Many authors note that according to his psychological characteristics, the younger teenager is still a junior schoolboy. It is not accidental that in many periodizations of development (for example, in E. Erikson) the junior school and junior adolescence are united into one age group. Mutual relations with the teacher of primary classes remain significant for the child, despite the regular change of interests. Therefore, the transition to subject teaching and another system of relationships with teachers is inevitably associated with the increase of school anxiety.
With the increased psychological unhappiness, in general, such phenomena are typical for younger adolescents, such as the growing reluctance to learn, the conflicts in relationships with adults, including teachers. In relation to teaching in younger adolescents, a semantic barrier often occurs. It was studied in the works of LI Bozhovich and LS Slavina and represents "... a phenomenon where a child, knowing and knowing how to do what the teacher requires of him, does not" understand "it demand and persistently does not fulfill it. In these cases, these or those pedagogical measures have no effect on him, although he understands exactly what they are directed at and how he should react to them. " The semantic barrier becomes the main source of misunderstanding by adolescents of adults and the cause of conflicts based on misunderstanding.
Anxiety, including school, is seen as the most obvious indicator of psychological distress. Behind the high anxiety of adolescents is the unmet need for security, in a warm and trusting relationship with the elders. To assess school anxiety used questionnaires, proposed B. Phillips and AM Prikhozhan. The questionnaire of B. Phillips reveals general anxiety in school, the experience of social stress, the fear of the situation of checking knowledge, the fear of not meeting the expectations of others, the problems and fears in relations with teachers and other parameters of psychological ill-being. Questionnaire AM Prikhozhan includes scales intended for assessing four types of anxiety: school, self-evaluation, interpersonal and magical. Based on these questionnaires and projective methods, a risk group for school disadaptation is identified.
Just like in working with older adolescents, one of the main methods of psychological help to such children is psychological training aimed at working out typical emotional problems for the age. The most desirable model of relationships with older (and with parents, and with educators) is a non-cost communication based on understanding and emotional support.
Teenage crisis. As the time of the onset of the adolescent crisis differs significantly between boys and girls and, in addition, the onset of the adolescent crisis has considerable variation, we do not specify the age range of the crisis. Many factors affect the offensive of the crisis, both biological (growth rates, time of onset of puberty), and social (changes in relationships with peers and adults). Psychologists studied two variants of the teenage crisis - the crisis of independence and the crisis of dependence . The first option most corresponds to the usual ideas about the teenage crisis. His symptoms are negativism, stubbornness, obstinacy and other manifestations of this kind. The crisis of dependence looks like a return to the previous system of relations, which created a sense of security and stability. This variant of the crisis is characterized by excessive obedience, dependence on the elder or strong, regression to old interests, tastes and behaviors (Practical Psychology of Education, 2007). The common feature for both forms of crisis is emotional instability. True, in the course of the crisis as a crisis of independence, it manifests itself more vividly. In the case of a crisis of dependence, negative emotions and, in particular, a negative attitude toward the school are more likely to be driven inward, rather than manifest themselves openly.
The most common emotional problem, directly related to the teaching, in adolescents is a negative attitude toward the teaching and the school, from which begins "internal withdrawal from the school". This withdrawal is expressed in the fact that the school ceases to be the center of his life for the student. The reason is selective readiness, increased sensitivity to one or other aspect of the training, an inner willingness to more "adults" forms of organization of learning. The teenager's problem is that he is not yet able to realize this readiness, because he does not know how to perform new forms of learning activity.
Pedagogical assistance to adolescents is to assist in the formation of those components of learning activities that were not formed on time. Psychological assistance aimed at forming the student's inner position was beautifully described in the works of LI Bozhovich and LS Slavina. The main form of assistance aimed at working out typical for this age problems is psychological training.
Senior adolescence. In psychology, adolescence is often referred to as the age of the second birth of a person. Developing self-awareness of the individual makes it possible for the adolescent to realize his problems. Practice shows that for the first time people are starting to seek help from psychologists in the senior adolescence. Most of these appeals are associated with age-typical emotional problems and problems with relationships with surrounding people. Let's name the main of these problems.
A characteristic age-related feature is the juxtaposition of adolescents to various groups (for example, sports or music fans) and emotional dependence on groups. Many adolescents in this, and at a younger age are dependent on Internet communication, spend a lot of time in chat rooms and forums where they communicate with peers. As a rule, the higher the degree of disadvantage in communicating adolescents with parents, the higher the degree of emotional dependence of the adolescent on Internet communication. A huge expenditure of time for such communication becomes for a teenager one of the main problems in school education, since there may simply not be time for the latter.
Another reason for the problems in the teaching is the so-called teenage laziness, manifested in the fact that a teenager may not be able to force himself to study. The reasons for this phenomenon can be quite serious. For example, one of the most common causes is teenage depression. It can be due to a number of reasons:
- a negative attitude towards your body during puberty;
- acquired in this period the ability to critically perceive any information, independently implement their judgments, based on the opinion of adults, and as a consequence of all this, a possible fixation on negative assessments of life;
- loneliness, low popularity among peers;
- difficulties in learning, low school performance.
Many adolescents suffer from a feeling of dullness of life, boredom. Attempts to overcome this feeling are lessons, sometimes rather risky, aimed at getting strong emotions, "drive". For boys, these classes can serve as a satisfaction for the need to "test yourself", feel like a real man. Such activities are extreme sports, parkour, roller-blading, trailers, etc. The risk of many such activities is very high, often such activities end in accidents.
Depression in adolescence is very dangerous and can cause suicides. This problem is especially urgent, as recently the number of teenage suicides has increased significantly. One of the reasons for the suicidal attempts of adolescents are deadlocked relationships with parents, when a teenager is afraid at the thought that it is necessary to tell parents about the failure to study. Another reason is often not satisfying adolescent status among peers. The following emotional problems become prerequisites for suicidal behavior:
- the inability of a teenager to understand and express his feelings, explain his experiences;
- the duality of the feeling of one's place in the world: on the one hand, it is no longer a child (overcome by adult desires and passions), and on the other - absolutely disenfranchised and completely dependent on the family (which at this time becomes less important to him than society peers);
- the maximalism of assessments and sentences to yourself and others, and at the same time, the inability to predict the consequences of your actions.
Psychoprophylaxis of suicide goes beyond pedagogical psychology. We only note that the following factors reduce the risk of depression and the risk of suicide attempts:
- good relations with parents and peers;
- out-of-school employment of a teenager in sports sections, creative circles, etc .;
- a social role, implying high personal responsibility and moral obligations for the affairs performed (for example, patronage of junior schoolchildren, caring for patients, etc.).
If you see a student's propensity for depression and suicide, it is recommended that you use the following techniques to help change the situation.
1. Attentive listening. In a state of mental crisis, any of us need someone, icto is ready to listen to us.
2. Attentive attitude to all, even the insignificant insults and complaints of a teenager. It is necessary to give an opportunity to reveal your feelings, share the accumulated problems.
3. Assuring the confidence of a teenager that he and his elders will necessarily cope with their problems.
Emotional problems of high school students. High-grade students face serious challenges: building new relationships with others, professional self-determination, autonomy from the family and other important components of adulthood. This period is characterized by frequent stresses. Stresses often give rise to uncertainty about the future. It is well known that adolescence is a time of strong emotional experiences, connected both with the educational process, and with the emergence of the first serious feelings of friendship and love. Therefore, the psychological support of high school students at the final stage of schooling is an important activity of psychologists and teachers.
Changes in emotional life, occurring in the years of adolescence, are expressed in the fact that it becomes significantly richer in content and much thinner in the shades of experience. This is manifested in an increase in emotional receptivity, emotional openness and, finally, in the growth of the ability to empathize. At the same time, anxiety and stress remain characteristic experiences. Many young men and women complain of their weak-willedness, instability, susceptibility to external influences and such characterological traits as capriciousness, insecurity, resentment. Stressful experiences are associated with the impending passing of examinations of state certification (EGE) at the end of school. Stress can also be related to the fact that the awakening youthful sexuality does not find the recognition of others and does not have acceptable ways of expression in culture. The condition in which the high school student is at this time, psychologists call the "stress of development". The risk of suicidal attempts as a means of overcoming severe stress, combined with the experience of a dead end in relation to one's life situation, remains high.
In these conditions, psychological and pedagogical assistance to students should include psychological support with an emphasis on the strengths of the individual, the formation of adequate self-esteem, training in self-regulation and relaxation techniques, and constructive expression of negative experiences. Refusal of authoritarian style of pedagogical influence, partnership relations, understanding by teachers and parents, respect for the personality of young men and women are the most important conditions that help them cope with stress and feel self-confidence.
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