The modern approach to the teaching of psychology considers teaching as the organization of joint and creative activity of the teacher and students, aimed at solving educational problems. Educational tasks determine the content of knowledge that must be learned, and can activate different cognitive processes: the reproduction of knowledge; simple thought actions or complex mental operations; speech utterances for the expression of a mental act, productive or reflexive thinking. The considered problems are solved with the help of various teaching methods, which are realized in specific methods, actions, organizational forms.
According to the source of knowledge and skills, there are verbal, visual and practical methods of teaching. Typical verbal methods are story, explanation, conversation, discussion, work with a book. Verbal methods of teaching are divided into oral and written, monologic and dialogical. Each of them has its own peculiarities of construction and expression. Monologic teaching methods are more effective if you use the following speech techniques.
1. Associate new material with past knowledge and experience of students.
2. Introduce in the monologue question-answer form.
3. Use colloquial characteristics of the syntax of oral speech.
4. Avoid speech stamps.
5. Use personification when presenting the training material.
6. Use speech and illustration in speech.
7. Change the wording in order to better understand.
8. Use pragmatic utterances.
Non-verbal means of influencing students include:
1) appearance and manners; 2) distance in communication as a spatial arrangement; 3) eye contact; 4) facial expressions and facial expressions; 5) posture; 6) gestures; 7) background characteristics of speech (tempo, tone, strength, rhythm, tension, pause, intonation). The expedient use of these means increases the effectiveness of the monologue as an oral method of teaching.
The dialogical method of instruction presupposes a great activity of students in the class. This advantage of the dialogical method is realized first of all at seminars and consultations. Heuristic conversation and group discussion are among the typical methods of dialogical learning.
Visual methods use the figurative language of presentation: visual, auditory, tactile images complement the verbal description. Among the main forms of visibility are: subject, graphic and verbal. In the teaching of psychology, object visibility is used when models of devices, the brain are used, when demonstration experiments and psychological experiments are conducted. Visual means are:
- artistic visibility (photos, paintings, movies - 11 videos);
- symbolic visibility (tables, diagrams, diagrams, graphs);
- textual clarity (writing on the blackboard or demonstrating by other means the most significant theses of the lecture, names of scientists, dates, terms and other textual information).
Verbal visibility is a description of images in speech form; the teacher clearly describes the situation of the psychological experiment, cites examples of works of art that characterize certain psychological phenomena and phenomena.
Visibility can be demonstrated using whiteboard and chalk, posters with illustrative materials, overhead projectors, slide projectors, overhead projectors, powerpoint presentations.
You must follow certain rules that make visual aids an effective learning tool.
Among the practical methods of teaching psychology are:
1) laboratory work modeling psychological experiments;
2) the performance of psychodiagnostic tasks, in particular, psychological tests;
3) the solution of psychological problems;
5) group discussions;
6) didactic and business games that imitate the processes under study.
Explanatory-illustrative and reproductive types of education are among the traditional forms. However, the degree of activity of students in the process of mastering knowledge is an important factor for successful learning, so it is useful to use forms of programmed, problematic and interactive learning. Among the active methods of teaching psychology include problem lecture, group work, business game, dramatization, brainstorming, analysis of specific situations, situational tasks, discussion, role play, psychotechnical play and training.
Modern education is characterized by the active introduction of distance learning technologies using television, the Internet, new forms of storage and transmission of information. Such training is flexible, students usually do not attend regular classes in the form of lectures and seminars. They are provided with the necessary textbooks and teaching aids, and training programs are developed. Consultations of students are conducted through a network of branches, television studios and computer networks. The forms of the organization of distance learning are consulting model, case technology, correspondence, radio and television, as well as network training.
Response to an assignment
Problem 1 solution "Pass through four points three straight lines (see Figure 6.4).
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