Erikson's psychosocial theory (Erikson, 1968), developed from Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and his considerable functional field research, emphasizes on the expansion and change within the individual. He incorporated social and sociable aspects into Freud's biological and sexually driven theory, and concentrated about how experience and environment formed tendencies and personality.
Erikson was the first ever to develop a life-span of human development, shattered into eight levels. Each stage is a associated with an emergency of two opposing psychological forces that the individual needs to solve to successfully pass through to another stage. A healthy balance of the two forces develops a basic virtue or strength. A inclination towards one of the opposing makes results in a 'maladapation' or 'malignancy'.
The changeover between stages are interconnected and don't appear in regimented clear chop steps. It is not an achievement level where the problems phases can be settled permanently. Any earlier crisis can revisit a person with successful or unsuccessful results.
The stages are powered by physical and sexual growth, which prompts the life span conditions that create the crises. They aren't driven by age group precisely, hence this range serves simply a very hard guide, especially through the later levels when parenthood timing and influences vary. Interpretations of age range range among freelance writers and academics. Erikson intentionally did not stipulate clear set age stages, and it's really impossible for anyone to do so.
Bowlby's attachment theory (Bowlby, 1989), developed from the object relations theory, stresses on the development, continuation and development of caregiver-child connections, along with the influences over public and emotional life. Bowlby's connection theory was consequently lengthened beyond infancy and early childhood into adolescence and adulthood by Hazan and Shaver (1987).
Add information + key assumptions!!! ; Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978;
The first stage of Erikson's theory parallels Bowlby's theory of infant attachment, where experience with caregivers is essential. Bowlby's (1989) attachment theory expresses that the infant develops types of the entire world and of do it yourself through relationship with the connection figure. A good model causes secure connection, while a negative model leads to a less satisfactory attachment. The newborn uses sensorimotor behaviors, for instance crying, to warn and seek closeness to the connection figure. In a very stressful situation, this connection behavioral system is utilized to reduce problems and instill a sense of physical security.
Caregivers who are warm, hypersensitive, available, and reactive during tense situations lead to secure connection. A feeling of trust they are looked after and guarded creates feelings of worthiness. The sensorimotor secure platform facilitates the infant to explore the encompassing world. Repeated success in giving and safely time for a security foundation enables the infant to view the world as a safe and welcoming place, concurrently gain the self-assurance to move around individually.
Successful resolution of the first level, trust versus mistrust, grows the virtue trust. The newborn should be well-fed and looked after, however, not over-indulged or over-protected. Over-protection fosters a wrong sense of trust and promotes gullibility which causes sensory maladjustment, seen as a senselessness or delusion. Mistreatment or overlook fosters mistrust and promotes suspicion of individuals. Mistrust increases amount of resistance to risk-exposure and exploration, and leads to the malignant tendency of withdrawal.
It is the optimal result of the first developmental period in both theories. The outcome of the period depends upon the reliability and quality of attention provided by the caregiver. These similarities support cases that attachment can be seen as the foundation of id.
The second to fourth stage of Erikson's theory corresponds to attachment in children. The developmental framework in this era expands from family to school and other contexts outside the home. Active involvement by the child is required to develop electric motor skills and vocabulary, and also to obtain successes and accomplishments. The fast development in cognitive talents in this era enables the child to judge and describe activities. The role of caregiver here is to provide direction, praise and support as the kid explores.
The secure platform habit changes and extends through years as a child and into adolescence. Internal working models (IWM) of connection guide the kid to anticipate and plan in the partnership (Bowlby, 1969; 1982). The sensorimotor secure bottom is internalized to form IWMs of self applied, which signify self-belief. IWMs of the world symbolize the goals of attachment numbers and interactions (Bowlby, 1973; Magai, 1999).
The presence of the secure base is significant in both ideas to support for exploration. Without such a secure base, the child faces uncertain about their capabilities or around the reliability of needed support from others. Secure attachments support exploration and affirm secure models of self and the earth.
Successful image resolution in the next level, autonomy versus pity and doubt, advances the virtue of willpower. The kid should be motivated to explore and manipulate the environment, however, not given unrestricted flexibility. Autonomy promotes confidence to be self-reliant while shame and hesitation inhibits self-expression. Unrestricted flexibility fosters shameless willfulness and leads to the maladjustment trend of impulsivity, seen as a thoughtless and reckless action. Impediment to exploration and freedom destroys self-confidence and contributes to the malignant tendency of compulsion, seen as a self-limiting habit.
Successful resolution in the third stage, effort versus guilt, builds up the strength purpose. Fantasy, curiosity and creativity should be accepted and prompted. Effort flourishes during excursion and play, while guilt is due to admonishment. This stage marks the beginning for social moral judgment. Lack of respect for others leads to the maladjustment propensity of ruthlessness, characterized by manipulative and detached patterns. Suppressed trip and experimentation fosters a negative fear of admonishment, and leads to the malignant trend of inhibition, seen as a risk-averting and unadventurous patterns.
Successful resolution in the fourth level, industry versus inferiority, evolves the virtue competence. The kid experience the satisfaction of achievements, however, not complacency. The expansion of the cultural circle enables the kid to learn sociable skills and use tools in prep for future. Over-training in a specific part of competence hinders the introduction of broader hobbies and leads to the maladjustment trend of narrow virtuosity, seen as a workaholic or obsessive behavior. This is apparent in child stars, athletes, musicians and prodigies. Lack of success to develop capabilities in college and work fosters a feeling of inferiority and causes the malignant propensity of inertia, characterized by indifference or aimlessness.
The fifth level of Erikson's theory corresponds to attachment in adolescence. Individuals continue to explore the planet as adolescent. The developmental framework emphasizes peers and other cultural groups. This era requires making adult decisions and implementing roles. The capacity for self-reflection, for illustration assessing advantages and weaknesses, and self-reevaluation of self-descriptions from at earlier phases, is required to achieve a feeling of personality.
Secure bottom and attachment action show continuity in their operation and function into adolescence, however the attachment numbers may change, especially as loving associations become important. Types of self and the earth continue to notify individuals about their worthiness of love and treatment and the likelihood of such love and good care on offer. Secure attachment helps bring about dynamic exploration and resilience when confronted with negative exploration final results.
In infancy and child years, the secure bottom part exists for infants and children, not caregivers. The partnership is a mutual secure platform for both lovers, providing a platform for exploration and a safe harbor when comfort is necessary.
Successful resolution in the fifth level, identity versus personality diffusion, builds up the virtue of fidelity. Id crisis is an interval of rigorous exploration for different identities. The adolescent explores and commits to the implemented identity. Identity foreclosure, or commitment to id without exploration, is generally significantly less than ideal (Wayne Marcia, 1980). Adolescents are recognized for their idealism and enthusiasm to promote their beliefs and standards of living. Over-involvement in a job leads to fanaticism, seen as a self-important and extremist habit. Identification fusion into a group allows escape from the severe society and causes the malignant propensity of repudiation, seen as a cultural disconnectedness.
The sixth stage of Erikson's theory corresponds to attachment in parents. The young adult begins to form close relationships and connection with others. The developmental framework expands further to co-workers, friends, and charming partners. Intimacy takes a developed sense of individuality as it establishes closeness and vulnerability with associates. Intimate connections may fast reconsiderations of prior identity formed with explorations and commitments. Activities build on the decisions made in the identity development period pertaining to one's work and cultural/romantic life.
Secure connection styles are generally linked to greater satisfaction in romantic relationships (Feeney, 1994), and self-disclosure, reliance on associates, and physical intimacy (Collins & Freeney, 2004).
Insecure individuals are prone to be distrusting of the lovers or are unpleasant with building an interdependent romance. An insecure personal model is likely to promote fearful, troubled or avoidant connection (Collins and Read, 1990). In terms of personal information development, this form of insecurity undermines the secure basic making exploration of identity within the context of the intimate relationship difficult. Commitments based on such exploration have a tendency to be less stable.
Successful image resolution of the sixth stage, intimacy versus isolation, advances the strength of love. The young adult should be able to build profound and meaningful human relationships with family, friends and marital partner, instead of isolation from love, camaraderie and community. Intimacy is a love between equals (friends or fans), and it is essentially reciprocal. Feelings of loneliness promote superficial and liberal intimacy, which brings about the maladjustment tendency of promiscuity, characterized by sexually needy and prone behavior. Concern with determination fosters loatheness, which causes the malignant trend of exclusion, characterized by loner or self-contained behavior.
Successful image resolution of the seventh stage, generativity versus stagnation, develops the strength of Care. The average person contributes positively and unconditionally to others. Generativity is an extension of the virtue want to the future technology. Unlike intimacy, generativity is not contingent on reciprocity of love. A significant life involves contribution in and contribution back again to life. Over-devotion decreases output and quality, which brings about the maladjustment inclination of overextension, characterized by busybody and meddling habit. Lack of wall socket to contribute fosters selfishness, which causes the malignant tendency of rejectivity, characterized by disinterested or cynical behavior.
Successful resolution of the eighth stage, integrity versus despair, develops the strength Intelligence. The individual can look back on life positively and happily, and agree to the imminence fatality with calmness. Attaining integrity without much difficulty brings about the maladjustment trend of presumption, characterized by conceited and pompous action. Fixation on earlier failures and bad decisions fosters feelings of contempt, which contributes to the malignant inclination of disdain, characterized by miserable and blaming action.