Erikson's theory of lifespan development

Erik Erikson was created on June 15th, 1902 and died May 12th, 1994. Erikson was a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst. He was known for his theory on cultural development of human beings and is well-known for creating the saying 'identity crisis'. Erikson is one of the only real biggest followers and challengers of Freud. Over time Erikson's clinical work and studies have been centered either on children, students, victims of the World Battle two, civil protection under the law workers, and American Indians. When Erikson started to take a look at these studies, he started to believe that Freud misjudged some important things of human being development.

Throughout this article, Erikson's theory of life expectancy development will be explored, reviewed, and evaluated. Erikson's work will also be compared to Freud's studies and research, to establish a knowledge of where Erickson's ideas originated from. Freud has, by basically influenced the psychosocial image that Erickson has. For instance, both Erickson and Freud agree that every person exists with a number of basic intuition. These range between development which occurs through stages, and that the order of these stages is subjective by biological maturation (Sigelman, and Shaffer 1992). Erikson and Freud also believe that personality has three components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Although Erikson and Freud involve some of the same ideas, Erikson will argue that sociable and cultural influences have a critical role in shaping a humans development, and that a human's development has less regarding the idea of erotic urges.

Erikson then discuses the 'nurture' aspect of the nature. Erikson argued against Freud that the nurture was as similarly significant in lifespan development. This 'nurture' view, points out the strain on environmental forces within Erikson's model. Encounters that we have in life, things that we learn, the interpersonal changes that happen every day, and the culture changes that happen have a very big role in a human's lifespan development regarding to Erickson.

Erikson and Freud, both agree that there are five stages of development, but Erikson was the first ever to identify and add the three stages of adults. Erikson (1950, 1968) argues again Freud's point that 'we develop in psychosocial stages, rather than in psychosexual levels'. Out of this quotation, we can see that Erikson believes our lifespan development is because of the world and Freud believes that the human life expectancy development was because of the human behaviour, which was sexual in character. Erikson argued that humans develop and change throughout their entire life as Freud, argued that humans gain their personality in the first five years of them being blessed. Erikson implies that personality advances through a variety of confrontations you have in different stages of your life. In each different level, Erikson assumed people experience a disagreement point of the life that assists/makes a turning point in the lifespan development. In Erikson's view, these disputes are centered on either creating a psychological quality or failing woefully to develop it. During the turning points in the lifespan development, the rate of personal development is very high, but on the other hands, addititionally there is potential for failing.

A a key point of Erikson's psychosocial level theory was the development of the ego individuality. Ego id is the sense of an individual's development through their interpersonal communication. Erikson's theory includes the entire human lifespan development. Erikson appears after a person as a person having responsibility during each level of development. Erikson, therefore, sets less focus on the id and in its place, places more emphasis on the ego. In Erickson's view, humans are reasonable people whose thoughts, thoughts, and actions are largely handled by the ego. Regarding to Erikson, our ego changes on a regular basis, credited to new events that happen in our lives. Erikson presumed that in case a person was to encounter a difficult part of these life, that it could change the point of development. This may be either developing a psychological quality early or not growing it whatsoever. At these differing times in individuals life's the likelihood of person development is high, but on the other hands it could go terrible incorrect and failure could arise. Erickson shows that a person's personality can change through what happens in their lives, but the effectiveness of Erickson's theory depends on the usefulness of a number of Freud's principles after which it is made. Like id, ego and super- ego. The part which makes someone's personality cannot be monitored. Therefore, a lot of people may disagree with Erickson, that his theory is flawed because the concepts can't be measured.

Over the years, lots of studies have been researched using the Marcia's program. Erikson's theory may be right as through different stages of our life pattern physical changes take place, which could affect a person's body image or sense of physical self-belief. However, Erikson's ideas show the actual fact that the study had not been obtained via any large-scale surveys. It had been in truth only based on his own observations, and his specialized medical practice. Therefore there is absolutely no evidence to support the findings of identity is in fact achieved. James Marcia (1966), developed an interview strategy to asses 'identification status'. This engaged asking question to different people about occupation, faith, political notion, and behaviour to erotic areas. With regards to the answer that was presented with the person would be located into one of four groupings. These organizations were confusion, where in fact the individual has not yet started considering identity seriously, foreclosure, where a dedication has been made but without going through an emergency, moratorium, where in fact the individual is going by way of a 'crisis', and lastly achievement, where the individual has experienced the 'crisis' and has already reached a resolution. Essentially the most relevant piece of research Meilman (1979). The research conducted was a combination- sectional review on 12- 24-year-old guys. The results uncovered that just over one half of the subjects had reached identity success at 24 years. From these results, we can easily see that identity accomplishment must continue in the years of adulthood. Another studies was O'Connell (1976). O'Connell found parallel results when he taken retrospective interviews with wedded women who acquired institution aged children. The women that were interview defined how their 'identity' became more obvious to themselves as they truly became more mature and wiser. This is from married, to locating a job, to presenting children. These findings from both studies conclude that 'id' development takes on quite a major part in people life-span development.

In evaluating, the positive part of Erickson's work, there are some downsides to it. The explanations that both Freud and Erickson have put forward are all very good but the main ideas of psychoanalytic ideas have been proven very difficult to test scientifically. This can be due them; a lot of the info that was given was a reconstruction from days gone by, so there is absolutely no known amount of correctness. Furthermore, the psychoanalytic ideas present a very frigid and negative image of humans, portraying us as a staged book. The psychoanalytic theories are also very culture and gender centered especially in Freud's ideas. On the other hand, humans' personality can be developed advertisement assist in life if we all have a much better knowledge of the levels a person normally fulfills at a certain era. Early activities in life have also appeared to play a major part in the life expectancy development. Lastly, many people find that Erickson's theory on our rational, adaptive characteristics and social affects understands the individual far more through the lifespan development stages than Freud's, unconscious, irrational behavior in natural needs. Erickson's eight periods have seemed to catch more life encounters that individuals have every day, which has a greater effect on adulthood.

In finish, Erickson's works is immediately related to the task of Freud. Erickson will not try to make different things from the fundamentals of psychoanalysis but instead, enhances them by adding more lifespan development stages. In the eight stages that Erickson researched and commented, he was also able to demonstrate the nature of their impact on individual identification. Erickson and Freud still have some overlapping problems that not all these levels can be scientifically proven, therefore some on the lifespan development stages can be very vague and difficult to test. Both Freud and Erickson provide us with a conclusion of what show happen and exactly how it will happen at each stage, but this does not give a clear-cut picture and explanation about how exactly this lifespan development happens. Erickson and Freud continue steadily to this day to condition our understanding of how our lifespan development works and how we happen it, but there are progressively more other theories that individuals are beginning to believe in, as they can be test, so they are simply more exact.

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