To most people abnormality is referred to as being not the same as other people in other words it is seen as not the same as what is recognised as normal or strange in modern culture. Psychologists have defined several approaches for standard behavior but an evaluation of three different categories and their idea is going to be reviewed. Different societies have their own collection standards of behaviour and attitudes so whatever would fall outside the set requirements would be considered to be excessive, psychologically referred to as deviation from social norms.
Another theory of abnormality can be discussed by referring to people who deviate from statistical norms. This description groups people alongside one another, based on certain measured characteristics, and put these details into a syndication routine to classify whether people fit into the 'average', or whether they fall beyond your 'average', for example, if cleverness quotient is measured, the results would show that typically most people would land around the middle, so people that have either low or high ratings statistically would be considered to be abnormal, although assumption of cleverness can be portrayed in tow ways, for example if one has a high IQ, they are simply regarded positively and don't fall in the unusual criteria, whereas if others fall under the low rating there are viewed negatively and for that reason regarded as abnormal. Physical samples can be considered, especially in terms of height or feet size. Quite simply manufacturers would produce products in line with the statistical numbers that fall into the normal standards.
Psychologists do have an overall assumption of how mental health, gender and culture issues are described statistically. Though they are really several factors of mental health issues, there some such as panic or depression that are statistically regarded as normal individuals conditions whereas, if is medically disorganised with severe nervousness, or found to be clinically depressed can be described as someone with a mental disorder which is excessive in a statistical sense. In conditions of gender, some psychologists have argued that men are less inclined to consult their doctors when suffering from mental disorders, making the females rating highly in statistical data. Bennett (1995) believed that would be credited to concerns of socialisation especially in industrialised societies. When it comes to culture Cohen (1988) provided a description of how Indian mental patients are highly discriminated, so this would leave many patients without seeking any medically help for his or her mental disorders so this would lead to incorrect statistical methods.
Another description would refer to those individuals whose behavior is maladaptive or dangerous. This talks about the effects of the behaviour problems either to the wellbeing of an individual or any sociable group. We must remember that defining abnormality is usually limited by cultural differences. Which means that what may be classed as normal in a single culture could be thought as extremely unnatural in another which limits the meanings accuracy in being able to define abnormality as a whole so the three meanings above do not consider ethnic differences.
The concept of unusual can be brought to a summary by evaluating the above approaches as they all help population identify abnormalities in other individuals which helps promote a standard safe living environment. For instance, if an individual deviates from public norms, enough help may get to them when their behavior is recognized from what's regarded as normal but on the other palm determining abnormality as deviation from communal norms, can be used to justify the removal of those who find themselves considered to be abnormal from modern culture. Statistically, it's been discovered that though statistical rate of recurrence or infrequency is important to the population it is not effective when put on mental disorders, so this helps it be difficult to know what is normal in the statistical sense.
ANALYSE THE DIFFICULTIES INVOLVED IN DIAGNOSING MENTAL Health problems AND DISCUSS THEIR USEFULLNESS.
A neurological exam, which helps medical professionals identify structural and psychiatric abnormality is usually carried out on patients with psychiatric disorders, and later gives an understanding of the wellbeing of the individuals brain, mental function, nerves and muscles. Psychologists have developed two classification systems that help classify abnormality into mental disorders and also detect them clinically. They are simply known as Diagnostic & statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) and the International Classification of The sources of disease and Health Related Problems (ICD). Both these systems classify irregular habits of thinking, behavior and emotion into mental health problems.
A significant feature of the DSM classification is the 5-axis diagnostic system, gives a systematic evaluation of the individual and then provides full account on the general medical condition of the patient or personality disorders, psychosocial and environment problems, as well as the amount of functioning of the individual. The ICD on the on the other hands includes diagnoses for all your systems in the human body and is also not popularly found in treatment centers as the DSM. Both classifications have the same e classification of mental disorders, so they both have their focus on the patient's personal stress other than on what the rest of society respond to any type of behaviour of the average person.
The above classifications have a tendency to be objective, but in society fear develops to the actual fact that those people who are classified and their families may be prejudiced against. The procedure of classifications has been approved for its successfulness to the treatment of physical illnesses but not is found not to be extremely effective in dealing with mental disorders and this is because symptoms from those battling with mental ailments are usually subjective, signifying it is always what they feel and this may be diverse between individuals. Psychiatrists and specialized medical psychologists have very limited information to determine the wellness of a person compared to those who treat physical conditions, for they perform extra lab examinations like x-rays and blood tests to get the symptoms and then identify the individual. This implies that cause of a disease in mental patients is partially known whereas in those patients with physical disorders causes are completely known.
David Rosenhan (1973) completed a study on eight people who have been normal but complained of experiencing voices, these were identified as having schizophrenia, so he argued that psychiatrists could only rely on their observation methods because they could not confirm the patient's symptoms. Therefore he drew a summary that psychiatric classification could be very inaccurate. Scheff (1966) also criticised the classification method in his labelling of theory. He argued that a psychiatric label to an individual may aggravate their condition, because they could be treated as though they are emotionally ill.
On the other hand, psychologists have found it effective, and insist that DSM classification has helped in conditions of producing and understanding the causes of mental illnesses in various patients. Regarding to Gelder et el. (1996), "The usage of classification can certainly be combined with awareness of any patient's unique characteristics, indeed it's important to combine both. "Pg 648 Eysenck M, (2000) Psychology A Students Handbook, Psychology Press. Matching to ICD classification, 11 major categories can be identified for mental disorders. But they are found to become more general than those of DSM. Therefore, it offers some degree of reliability, but not a lot of home elevators its validity.
EVALUATE THE USEFULNESS OF THE LATEST MODELS OF OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR
The types of abnormality are theories that help describe the reason for mental health disorders. There four models known as Biological, Psychodynamic, Behavioural and Cognitive strategies, and each model has a distinct view which helps to provide extra research and treatment approaches as a result. However, psychologists have divide views in conditions of analysing the disorders; some believe that disorders must originate from psychological triggers whilst others believe the disorders could be predicated on biological causes. A brief information and an evaluation is likely to be looked at for both, Biomedical and Psychodynamic models and an overview of their usefulness may also be accounted for.
Biological psychologists would make clear that mental disorders will be the consequences of biological systems because of the fact that, they regard abnormal behaviour in conditions of unusual biology. In fact the natural model is also known as the medical model because it categorises abnormality as a health which is the model that addresses mental disorder as an illness. Since it is see seen from the point of view of treatments, its notion for mental disorders, resemble that of physical health problems, which means mental disorders have under lying natural or biochemical triggers. These are thought to arise from Disease by germs, inherited systemic defect, neurochemical factors and effects of trauma.
The Psychodynamic model, originated by Freud, though some of other psychologists transformed a few of its emphasis, almost all of the original assumption for this model continues to be actively used. Freud assumed that humans are blessed with the id part of our personality and later on in life when people socialise in to the moral standards with their culture then our excellent ego is developed. Freud discussed a well modified person develops a strong ego and for that reason able to control their personality.
Although the biological approach may have fairly witnessed astonishing success in dealing with mental disorders with drug cures, it has additionally been criticised for featuring its main give attention to the symptoms and for that reason whenever drugs are ended, the symptoms go back which means the root of the condition is not being tackled. This approach tends to use classification systems such as DSM and ICD which have been doubted because of their persistence and validity. Its scientific position and links with drugs, the medical model may have gained recognition and reliability, but on the other palm danger of over prognosis of mental health problems and long dependency on drugs, which disadvantages severe side results, has also been attended to.
The Psychodynamic model on the other side in addition has been criticised because of its validity, the actual fact that it bears out specialized medical interview and circumstance studies for its experiments, it generally does not subject to clinical, empirical analysis. This implies the central makes of the mind are unconscious, therefore making it difficult to directly be viewed. Its theory is known as deterministic because it finds childhood attachments to parents, in the very early stages is essential for personality development. Apart from the above criticism, the model is recognized as the foundation of present day cures.
DESCRIBE AND MEASURE THE MAIN APPROACHES TO THE TREATING MENTAL ILLNESS.
The natural model snacks mental disorders as physical conditions. Somatic drugs such as modest and major tranquillizers or antidepressants are widely used. Chemotherapy is also regarded as effective and the main treatment of mental health problems as a result of assumption that chemical substance balance is the main cause of the issue. However, some psychologists have disagreed, and assume that the chemical substance imbalance to be the effect, as opposed to the cause of mental problems.
For the Psychodynamic model, Freud developed a method of treatment called psychoanalysis, which really is a type of remedy that seeks to discover the underlying causes of abnormal behavior. The notion was that unresolved mental conflicts from early on child years could be withdrawn, so by speaking with bring out and work through unconscious conflicts would bring it out to the conscious level and for that reason be handled accordingly. It is also presumed within the psychodynamic theory, that the unconscious can be unveiled in dreams, so examination of dreams is one of the techniques used in the treating mental disorders in psychodynamic theory.
DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE PRACTICAL AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF Treatments AND TREATMENTS
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