Sleep deprivation gets the potential to cause a variety of problematic behavior, that serious adverse effects can result. To be able to design cure it is critical to initially establish an understanding of what motivates normal and unnatural behaviour. This essay will evaluate the 5 different psychology perspectives to establish which includes the best analysis methods, and their belief on the drive for sleep as well as for rest deprivation. The 5 perspectives are evolutionary, psychodynamic, behaviourist, cognitive and hierarchy of needs. The article will explore the roots, the research methods, variables, ideas and hypotheses, and can a critique of the talents and shortcomings associated with all of them. A disagreement will be offered that the behaviourist perspective is the most dependable perspective to study sleep and sleep deprivation. These finding are based on the ideas and substantiated research methods applied in the behaviourist perspective.
This essay will verify the motivation for sleep and rest deprivation, from 5 psychology perspectives: evolutionary, psychodynamic, behaviourist, cognitive and hierarchy of needs. A generally performed perception that "successful people" require less rest can lead to serious ramifications ("Nature", 2005). Inside the America population, the prevalence of sleep deprivation is 10% to 15% (Wilson, 2005). Symptoms of sleep deprivation include deterioration in the attention span, fluctuating feelings and anxiety. Effects of rest deprivation include heart disease, type II diabetes and psychiatric disorders (Wilson). According to McCall (as cited in Wilson, 2005), a link have been made between depression, psychiatric disorders and sleeping deprivation.
The rationale because of this essay is to evaluate the 5 perspectives named in order to identify what motivates visitors to sleep or never to sleep. This article will dispute that the behaviourist point of view is best perspective for identifying what motivates visitors to sleep and the complexities sleep deprivation.
Charles Darwin's evolutionary point of view focuses on the analysis of evolution as a means to explain physiological operations (Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2009). Darwin proposed that drive has a natural basis, this perspective is founded on the idea of natural selection (Burton et al. , 2009). Evolving within the ages, the brain is governed by neural circuits which inspire behaviour (Burton et al. ).
Sleep is known as needed for the maintenance of physical and mental wellbeing. Sleep is motivated and supervised by instinctive reduced neural coding in the mind, evolved as time passes through the process of natural selection in response to environmental rotation of light and dark hours. Rest studies would be undertaken through the procedure of naturalistic observation (Burton et al. , 2009). A combination of observation and the use of video taking would be practical method of saving the actual sleeping hours. This might be supported by the use of an electroencephalogram (EEG) to record the neural activity before, during, and after sleep (Burton et al. ). The biological variable in this study are the time of rest and the theoretical changing the neural activity. It is hypothesised that as the neural activity reduces, sleeping time increase.
Modern times has seen the intro of electricity, a day television, pcs and other stimuli that have caused an inconsistently between natural sleeping behavior and the unnatural behaviour of sleeping deprivation. The constant stimuli have prevented neural activity from decreasing. Natural observation would be utilized to test this theory (Burton et al. 2009), calculating the biological adjustable, hours of sleeping through video recording and record keeping. The theoretical variable, brain activity would be measured by an EEG before, during, and after sleeping, to compare and measure changes. It is hypothesised that the mind activity will be high during the usual sleeping period, leading to the participate becoming rest deprived.
Strengths of this study are so it allows for observation of natural behaviour in an all natural setting and provides the possibility to examine research which cannot be observed within the laboratory (Burton et al. , 2009). Shortcomings of the natural observation method will be the failing to find causation, the lack of generalisability and research finding could not be replicated (Burton et al. ). As the shortcomings of the approach to research are greater that the advantages, this point of view is not suggested as a means to study of rest and sleeping deprivation.
The psychodynamic point of view as theorised by the work of Sigmund Freud, places an focus on the role of the unconscious functions, motivation, and early on childhood experiences in an effort to explain human behavior (Burton et al. , 2009). It details behaviours as being determined by drives, internal tension areas, that build-up until they can be satisfied (Burton et al. ). Freud presumed that your brain is like an iceberg, with most being concealed. Conscious awareness, the end of the iceberg, floats above the surface. The preconscious, the area just below the top, contains information which is often brought to awareness when needed. The unconscious, the part deeply submerged underwater, is made up of thoughts, feelings, and memories of which one is unaware. This part would also contain information or storage area which had been effectively obstructed from consciousness (Burton et al. ).
In psychodynamic conditions, sleep is portrayed as the discharge of the building stress of the need for sleep, as a way of gratifying the drive for do it yourself preservation (Burton et al. , 2009). A case study approach to research would be utilized to study rest behaviour (Burton et al. ). Hours of sleeping, the biological changing, would be registered by the participant through self-reporting utilizing a sleep journal. Internal tensions, the theoretical changing, would be assessed using a thematic apperception test (TAT), which is designed to reveal the participants unconscious tensions. It really is hypothesised that as internal tensions increase, as measured by higher TAT ratings, a greater number of sleep time will be noted in the individuals sleep diary.
Sleep deprivation can be described as a self-deceptive desire to remain awake. Psychological distress and good judgement are compromised through rationalisation and compromise. A case study approach to research would be utilized in this perspective, to study rest deprivation (Burton et al. , 2009). Observation or home reporting would be utilized to measure hours of sleeping. The TAT would be utilized to discover unseen motives and utilised to test the internal tension areas (Burton et al. ). The biological varying in this study are the hours of sleep and the theoretical varying, internal tension says. It really is hypothesised that as the inner tension state boosts, as assessed by the higher TAT results, the self applied deceptive desire to stay awake, measured by the members sleep journal, also increases resulting in rest deprivation.
Strengths of the review are that through the application of clinical reasoning a romantic relationship between internal tensions, implicit thought techniques and sleeping deprivation is made (Burton et al. , 2009) Shortcomings of the study are the low generalisability and research finding cannot be replicated (Burton et al. ). The study is susceptible to researcher bias and did not determine causation (Burton et al. ). As the shortcomings of this approach to research are greater that the strengths, this point of view is not recommended to study sleep and sleep deprivation.
The behavioural perspective, established by John Watson and B. F. Skinner, concentrates the fact that behaviours are learned and that environmental occasions control behaviour (Burton et al. , 2009). Drive decrease theory describes a distressing state of tension being reduced through behavior, that behaviour is considered rewarding resulting in motivation to replicate the behavior (Burton et al. ). Behaviourists believe in the idea of "Tabula Rasa, " or "the empty slate theory" (Burton et al. p. 14). For example, a child is born with no knowledge and they must seek it from both environment and experience (Burton et al. ).
Sleep is described as consciously chosen and considered has having value and being achievable (Burton et al. , 2009). Sleep is an innate drive which is rewarded by the release of developed tension through relaxing. A behaviourist would test this theory using an experimental research (Burton et al. ). The theoretical variable of heartrate would be manipulated and the biological variable of time of sleeping would be measured. The heartrate would be assessed by ECG before during, and after sleep to allow an evaluation of changes. On the 2 week period the utilization of video recording to track record the nightly sleeping hours and the use of a heart and soul monitor to track record the tension expresses would be utilised to observe the changes. It really is hypothesised that as the members heartrate, and tension state boosts, the participant become more motivated and rest hours increase, bringing about a reduction in heart rate while asleep hours.
From the behavioural perspective rest deprivation would be discussed as a motivation for the participant in which to stay a state of arousal. Experimentation research methods are being used to study this perspective (Burton et al. , 2009). The natural variable, hours of sleeping, are saved using video taking, and the theoretical changing, the heart rate, is monitored using a heart screen and the findings noted. (Burton et al. ). It really is hypothesised that where a motivation is apparent, the heart rate will remain high, somewhat than reducing and satisfying the inner tension point out, therefore decreasing the inspiration to sleeping.
#Strengths of this method are that research finding can be replicated it causation can established, and varying are maintained (Burton et al. , 2009). Shortcomings are that experimental research methods only aren't sufficient to establish generalisability or for the research of complex matters (Burton et al. ). As the advantages outweigh the shortcomings, this perspective is recommended for the analysis of sleeping and sleeping deprivation.
The early on philosophical questions by Rene Descartes, resulted in a greater importance on the role of reason in creating knowledge (Burton et al. , 2009). William Wundt is definitely the creator of the cognitive perspective which targets "mental procedures" such as thinking, the ability to problem solve, retain ram, language skills and a decision-making capacity (Burton et al. ). The expectancy value theory implies that one is motivated by evaluating how valuable an outcome is and also how firmly they consider they can achieve it (Burton et al. ).
Sleep is explained as a consciously chosen activity considered both valuable and attainable. The method of research to check this theory would be survey (Burton et al. , 2009). The natural variable, time of sleep, registered in a rest journal, and the theoretical variables, the participant's level of expectancy to accomplish sleep, and the value associated with sleeping, would be measured through a study. Relationship would then gauge the romantic relationship between these factors (Burton et al. ). It is hypothesised that when the amount of expectancy to achieve sleeping is high and the worthiness associated with sleeping is high, then the recorded time of rest will be greater.
Sleep deprivation is discussed as a minimal main concern being allocated for sleep and the miscalculation of the direct consequences, resulting in the fact that any negative consequence will not have an effect on the person. Survey and correlation will be the research method applied in the behavioural perspective (Burton et al. , 2009). The natural variable, time of sleep registered in a sleep journal, and the theoretical factors, the level of expectancy to attain sleep, and the individuals associated value of rest, would be assessed through a review. It is hypothesised that whenever the level of rest expectancy is low and when the associated value of sleeping is low, the time of recorded sleep will also be low.
Strengths of the study are the results can be quantified, large examples can be collected, thus allowing generalisability (Burton et al. ). Shortcomings of the review are that self reported studies are susceptible to participant interpretation and biases (Burton et al. , 2009). As shortcomings outweigh talents, this point of view is not suggested as a study of sleep and sleep deprivation.
During the 1950's the humanistic perceptive emerged and was greatly inspired by the work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Burton et al. , 2009). Both emphasised the role of desire on thought and behaviour, their theory was founded on the idea that each person has the ability contribute to culture, if their needs are fulfilled (Burton et al. , 2009). The 'Hierarchy of Needs' originated by Maslow who presumed that as a person's needs were achieved, in the right order, individuals are in a position to become self applied actualised, a efficient person. It is merely following the individuals basic physiological needs are achieved, that they can move on to the next level (Burton et al. ).
Sleep, according to this perspective is a simple human need, determined by unfulfilled physiological needs. The hierarchy of needs is founded on the humanistic point of view, and behaviour is shaped by the need to self-actualise to fulfil a person's full probable (Burton et al. , 2009).
Sleep deprivation cannot be explained from the hierarchy of needs perspective. There is absolutely no scientific way for research applied in this perspective (Burton et al. , 2009).
The strengths of this study will be the give attention to the uniqueness of the average person, and it generally does not assume basic standardisation. Shortcoming are there is no medical method and will not display the characteristics of good mental health research (Burton et al. , 2009). The hypothesis is entirely theoretical and can't be tested or generalised (Burton et al. ). As the shortcomings of this approach to research are better that the strengths, this perspective is not advised to study rest and sleeping deprivation.
This essay analyzed the inspiration for sleeping and sleep deprivation, from 5 psychology perspectives. The rationale for this article was to judge the 5 perspectives named in order to identify what motivates people to sleep or not to sleep and also to determine which point of view best is aware of the motives behind the behaviours of sleep and sleeping deprivation. Wilson (2005) stated that within the America human population, the prevalence of rest deprivation is 10% to 15%. Wilson recognized symptoms of sleep deprivation including deterioration in the attention span, fluctuating disposition and anxiety. Results of sleeping deprivation include cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and psychiatric disorders (Wilson).
The talents of evolutionary point of view study are that it allows for observation of natural behaviour in an all natural setting and provides the possibility to review research which can't be observed in just a laboratory (Burton et al. , 2009). The capability to measure unconscious processes are talents of the psychodynamic perspective (Burton et al. ). The behaviourist perspective applied an experimental method even though natural behaviour is not totally replicated in a lab situation (Burton et al. ). The cognitive point of view strengths are that the results can be quantified, large samples can be accumulated, therefore permitting generalisability (Burton et al. ). The talents of the Hierarchy of Needs perspective are that the study targets the uniqueness of the average person, and it generally does not assume basic standardisation (Burton et al. ). All perspectives evaluated didn't forecast causation (Burton et al. ). An analysis of the merits of the 5 perspectives studied means that the strengths of the behaviourist perspective outweigh the other perspectives (Burton et al. ). It is therefore advised that the behaviourist point of view is the very best perspective for looking into sleep and sleep deprivation.
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