Evaluation of short-term memory - Handbook of practical psychologist...

Evaluation of short-term memory

The study requires nine geometric shapes and 12 tablets with the words: "mountain", "needle", "rose", "cat", "clock", "coat", "book", " , "window", "saw", "fork", "foot", "vase". To present this material, as a rule, use a tachistoscope. However, when a large number of subjects pass through the experiment, the test material is presented without a problem: through a slot on the cardboard sheet. The exposure time of each element is 2 seconds, the interval between exposures is 1 second.

The lesson is held individually. Work begins after establishing a trusting relationship with the child. The subject sits at the table opposite the experimenter and proceeds to the task after his oral instruction: "Now I will show in order and only once geometric figures (or words). It is necessary to remember and on my command to draw (or write) them. Perform the task quickly and without error. " In the protocol, the experimenter records the playback time, the number of correctly reproduced elements and errors.

The number of correctly reproduced elements c, the erroneously reproduced elements t , and the missing elements n. is then calculated. The main memory productivity B is determined by the formula

Protocol for the study of the volume of figurative and verbal-logical short-term memory

Stimulus

Playback time, s

Time Correction

Playback Quality

Geometric shapes

Words

The playback time of each element is calculated taking into account the correction T (Table 2.5).

Table 2.5

Compensation for stimulus material playback time

Geometric shapes

Words

Experimental time, s

Time Correction, scores

Experimental time, s

Time Correction, scores

& lt; 5

+ 1

& lt; 4

+ 1

5 - 25

0

4 - 13

0

25 - 35

- 1

13 - 17

- 1

& gt; 35

- 2

& gt; 17

- 2

The index of the short-term memory A, combining the memory productivity index B and the playback time with correction T, is calculated using the formula

A = B + T.

Having received individual data on the success rate of short-term imagery, the average arithmetic value of the success rate for the group as a whole is calculated. To obtain group (age) differences it is necessary to compare the calculated experimental data with each other.

For subsequent comparison of the obtained data with other memory characteristics, as well as for intra-individual analysis, it is necessary to translate the absolute values ​​of the short-term memory volume A into the scale estimates from Table. 2.6.

Table 2.6

Scalar estimates of the amount of short-term memory

Scale estimates

Memory

Scale estimates

Memory

Visual

Verbalology

Visual

Verbalology

19

& gt; 100

& gt; 86

9

63 - 67

38 - 42

18

-

79 - 86

8

59 - 62

33 - 38

17

98 - 100

74 - 79

7

54 - 58

29 - 33

16

94 - 97

69 - 74

6

50 - 53

23 - 29

15

90 - 93

65 - 69

5

46 - 49

20 - 23

14

87 - 89

60 - 65

4

40 - 45

12 - 20

13

82 - 86

56 - 60

3

36 - 39

11 - 12

12

76 - 81

51 - 56

2

31 - 35

7 - 11

11

73 - 75

47 - 51

1

26 - 30

2 - 7

10

68 - 72

42 - 47

0

& lt; 25

& lt; 2

The analysis of the obtained data allows to draw a conclusion:

- about the presence or absence of intergroup (eg, age) differences;

- about the extent to which the data obtained in one test differs from the average group;

- the degree of expression of individual differences in both unimodal and multi-modal indicators.

When analyzing the results, it should be borne in mind that there is no normative data for this technique, therefore each separate result can be interpreted only in comparison with others.

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