Existential a priori - Psychoanalysis. Modern deep psychology

Existential a priori

In this work, L. Binswanger's famous help was provided by his early fascinations with Kant. Here he borrows from Kant considerations about a priori knowledge, which is given to a person before any experience. But Binswanger radically rethinks the very notion of a priori structures. They treat it as immeasurably more basic than the transcendental categories of Kant. In Kant, a priori knowledge is interpreted only in the aspect of cognition. Binswanger also tries to recognize such a priori structures that determine human experience as a whole. So, the idea arises that the psyche has some structures, given to us even before the experiment. Their Binswanger calls existential a priori.

H. In his time, Freud also, when starting to analyze dreams, comes to the conclusion that the psychic structure has undoubted persistence and persistence. He argues with those positions of psychiatry that dominated at that time and amounted to the fact that mental processes are fluid, fluid. Freud also thought that beyond this changeability one can also find undoubted stability. In fact, this was the undoubted merit of the Austrian researcher, who placed psychology on a scientific basis, revealing concrete and permanent structures in the psyche. The thought of Binswanger looks much more radical. He speaks of a structure that is in the depths of the psyche and reflects its a priori hierarchy and which determines the psychic life in general.

With this interpretation, painful psychic phenomena are defined as distortions (deviations) of the pre-experienced (a priori) existential structure. We, therefore, according to Binswanger, break through to an understanding of some semantic matrix of the patient. Analysts get an opportunity to see how common a priori structures find themselves in a separate psychic world, in a particular person. But again, the question of what I perceive turns out to be not the main thing with this approach. It is supplemented by the phenomenology of feelings and desires. It is no coincidence that E. Husserl emphasized that the unconditionality of morality is confirmed only by feelings. Therefore, followers will even introduce the concept of emotional a priori.

In this context, it's not about what I know. The modus is different - how do I exist? & Quot ;. To answer this question, it is necessary to realize how insane as a certain integrity refers to the content that is produced by its own mind. What is the analyst doing in this case? He collects data, but not at all in order to simply describe them. It is important for him to break through to a universal a priori structure, which determines the behavior of a person and his self-perception in various aspects of the acquired experience - temporal, spatial, personal, social. And here, of course, one can not confine ourselves to any one aspect, let's say social, which will show the patient's asociality, from which all other phenomena of his mental world will be illegitimately derived.

What is fundamentally new in this procedure? After all, any analyst who does not even belong to existential therapy, in the process of work, generalizes the material received. And then, whence comes the conviction that we are precisely those a priori transcendental categories that are a priori unchanged? Moreover, some researchers have an idea that this existential a priori is actually variable and is conditioned by language. However, in philosophy, the conviction grows that the behavior of an individual is not comprehended as an analysis of the pragmatics of choice. In the final analysis everything is decided an absolute a priori. This point of view is the German philosopher W. Windelband. And it confirms the hypotheses of L. Binswanger.

Absolute a priori not closed, not isolated. It penetrates into a single consciousness and in this case acquires undoubted value. Often, it turns out to be the norm for a person who discovers the desire to know, to do something. These various specifications do not destroy the absoluteness of existential a priori. L. Binswanger thinks about what determines the absolutely sovereign way of existence of an individual in all spheres of his being. Since Heidegger argued that meaning and being are by no means different things, Binswanger prioritizes the question of what makes sense.

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