Existential psychoanalysis, Preconditions for the emergence...

Part 2. Existential psychoanalysis

Chapter 4. Preconditions for the emergence of existential psychoanalysis

The desire to leave life is paradoxical in itself. Himself to destroy this precious gift? Throwing a priceless offer in the face of God or eternity? Another oddity: on the coast in order of suicide dolphins and whales are thrown out - i.e. Highly intelligent creatures with a developed brain. Sharks, stingrays, morays of suicidal impulses do not show. Neither a scorpion stabbing its venomous sting in his back, surrounded by burning coals, nor animals that refuse food in captivity and die, can not, apparently, confirm that suicide is indeed a universal phenomenon inherent in all living things. It seems that this phenomenon is specifically human. Philosopher Albert Camus believed that suicide is a truly serious philosophical problem. To decide whether life is worth living or not, to live it, is to answer the fundamental question of philosophy. Everything else is secondary.

In 1774 Goethe published the novel "The Suffering of a Young Werther" about a young man with artistic inclinations, gifted with deep, pure feelings and an astute mind, who lost himself in fantastic dreams and poisoned himself with fruitless reflections to the point that he shot himself in the head, bursting with hopeless passions, especially unrequited love. " The book was a success. The author wanted to warn young people from being addicted to death. But it turned out that thousands of young men left the life as described in the novel. In psychology, the expression "Werther effect" appeared. It meant imitative suicidal influence. In the era of romanticism, the poetization of death caused mass suicides. And in the years of the Great Depression, the number of suicides has grown unheard. "And the death thought was sweet to my soul," AS Pushkin wrote. Is it really possible? He wanted to lose his constant cheerleader. But the idea of ​​voluntary withdrawal from life sooner or later can settle in everyone's soul. Especially in the soul of a poet who experiences a lot of emotional states, easily imbibes the pain of others, perceives a threat to life.

And that's what the poets wrote: And who, in excess of sensations, When the blood boils and stains, Did not know your temptations. Suicide and love!

(Fedor Tyutchev)

My dearest! You do not pull from the window On the road briaak naughty head? In fact pulls, the truth?

(Sasha the Black)

But how can you avoid this evil?

1. Do not join the game with death. It's dangerous to flirt with her and call her on your head. When a person looks into the abyss for a long time, the abyss begins to look at him. Death is attractive if it fills the mind. Lermontov was 18 years old when he literally exhaled. "The lonely sail grows white ..." The poem does not just poetise loneliness, it to some extent calls for death. Having written these lines, the poet, in fact, sentenced himself to death. Pasternak said to Yevtushenko: "Do not write poetry about death." But why? Because the game with death is dangerous, what the poet flirted with comes true. This is not mysticism at all. The poet prophesies and realizes his own script.

2. It is important to understand that suicide is not capable of solving any problems. Someone seems that, having passed away from life, we can rid ourselves of earthly problems, agonizing conditions, from intricate life situations. But this is not so. A year ago, a businessman lost a lot of money during the crisis, passed away, leaving a note: "I can not pay the debts". But death does not forgive debts. Now this money should be returned to his children.

3. Suicide is the sharp contraction of consciousness, the contraction of the entire mental space to a single point. The girl got a deuce. She goes home and fears with fear how her father will cry, how her mother will cry, how her grandmother grabs her heart. The best way out of this situation is to rush into the flight of stairs. But is the deuce worth more than life? In one of the neighboring apartments the boy hung himself. He wrote: "I'm not likely to be able to achieve anything in this life." But life is just beginning. Even at the outset of life, everything can change abruptly.

4. Valuable attitude to life is a reliable antidote against suicide. Not without reason NM Karamzin wrote that leaving from life is incompatible with moral consciousness. Suicides tend to be committed from desperation, in protest, to maintain self-esteem, as a result of the obscuration of the mind, to avoid pain or revenge. Man all his life collected pictures, but suddenly it turned out that many of them are fakes. He hanged himself. But does this act of despair show love for art? Risk Factors poverty, unemployment, loss of loved ones and problems in family relations.

Nowadays, psychology is increasingly turning to this topic.

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