Explanatory Principles in Psychology
At the base of each paradigm lies the methodological principle of position, theory, concept, which clarifies and explains the evidence, the logic of construction of research thought, theoretical constructs, the course of evidence and interpretations in one way or another. Recently, in many studies, methodological principles have lost their content orientation and explanatory ability, acquiring instead a nominative entity, informing that the researcher knows about their existence and their probable ability to explain the logic of his research. At the same time, the methodological principles of psychology used in accordance with its purpose help to limit the research field, structure the results of the research, embed the theory, concept or particular results into the available psychological knowledge.
The following explanatory principles refer to the most famous and often applied ones:
• Unity of consciousness and activity;
Many of them are partial variations of general scientific methodological principles, emphasizing the embeddedness of psychological science in the system of general scientific knowledge.
The principle of determinism is one of the general scientific and in general terms defined as the causation of something. As a rule, when in psychological science we are talking about the principle of determinism, we consider the causal conditioning of the psyche, mental phenomena, psychological characteristics, etc. In the history of science in the description of the emergence and functioning of the psyche, mechanical, biological, psychological and other determinism take place. In addition, determination can be described in various variations. For example, causal determination is that the cause determines the effect. Statistical determination tells us that the cause causes several consequences that arise with different probability. Determination of the feedback type tells us that the effect affects its cause. System Determination explains the interaction of the system and its components. It should also be said that modern science rejects rigid determinism, since the development of certain phenomena under the influence of causes can also occur thanks to the laws of self-development. Nevertheless, in many studies to this day, the search for causes, factors, conditions is explained by the principle of determinism.
The principle of systemic , also general scientific, is used in explaining the relationship of phenomena, joint change. In psychology, it is customary to describe the psyche as a system, and, accordingly, to explain the emergence, development and change of its components through processes occurring throughout the system or individual parts. Psychic and psychological phenomena can themselves be components of other systems, and then psychic entities, psychological phenomena can be considered in connection with entry into these systems. In practical activity, this is reflected when, through one component of the system, they try to influence the entire system or parts of it. For example, through changing attitudes toward one object, one tries to change the whole system of human relations.
The principle of development in psychology is a variation of the general scientific principle of historicism. In philosophy, this principle is associated, first of all, with dialectics as a doctrine of universal laws of development. The principle of development tells us that mental phenomena change under the influence of the causes that caused them and in connection with their entry into the system. As MG Yaroshevsky and AV Petrovsky rightly noted, the development principle unites the principles of systemic and determinism. The development principle emphasizes the processionality of the mental, qualitative change of the psyche in time both in the aspect of psychogenesis and ontogeny. In this case, in psychological studies, the development principle explains the emergence of neoplasms at a particular stage of mental development, the patterns of changes in the psyche, as well as psychological and socio-psychological phenomena.
The principle of unity of consciousness and activity was formulated by SL Rubinshtein and says that consciousness is formed and manifested in activity. This principle is not a general scientific, but a particular principle of psychological science. Undoubtedly, it reflects the philosophical principle of objectifying the spirit of GV Hegel, but only in part. In psychological studies, the principle of unity of consciousness and activity is used to prove the influence of activity on the formation of psychological and mental characteristics of a person. Moreover, this principle is suitable for the substantiation of some practical training technologies aimed at developing skills, abilities and abilities. This principle works in both directions; in the activity various psychological features of the person on which it is possible to draw conclusions about its mental potential are shown.
The principle of activity becomes an extension of the principle of unity of consciousness and activity. He argues that the person himself is the source of mental and psychological activity. For example, the choice of the mode of action, emotional response, moral evaluation often comes from the subject, and is not a response to the impact of the surrounding environment. The principle of activity tells us that a person can resist the conditions of the environment and act in accordance with his convictions and values. It should be noted that along with the principle of activity, there is the principle of reactivity . It is reflected in associative psychology and behaviorism. Scientists of these directions asserted that a person can not show activity, but demonstrates exclusively behavior caused by environmental influences.
Integrity Principle explains the impossibility of considering the human psyche and psychology in fragments, without reference to the whole. Gestalt psychology, which claimed that the whole is larger than the simple sum of its parts, demonstrated by the example of the phenomena of perception that the whole acquires new qualities that are irreducible to the properties of its constituent elements.
The reconstruction principle allows you to make assumptions about how, but outwardly measurable and observable phenomena, you can construct interrelated internal unobservable phenomena related to ideal mental constructs. This principle is realized at the expense of known and proven relationships between the inner content and its external manifestation, between the ideal and the material side of a process. Recently, this principle is often used in neuropsychology, for example, in the case when mental processes and conditions are reconstructed on the basis of MRI diagnostics.
In the principle of subjectivity laid the idea of the uniqueness of the refraction of all the psychological characteristics of a person, reflecting his interaction with the internal and external world. A person in this case is considered as a psychic given, transforming his being and the surrounding world through the realization of what is happening.
The principle of the personal approach reveals in the study mental processes and psychological characteristics through the prism of experiences,
Relationships and meanings of personality. In this case, the study acquires the characteristics of a monographic description, because it describes not the general laws, but the phenomenology of their manifestations at the individual level in connection with the micro- and macrosocial and historical context in which a person exists.
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