Factors that Impact Prenatal Development

Keywords: stress prenatal development

Today, it is well recorded that we now have many factors that could potentially harm or negatively influence the development of an unborn child during the prenatal period (1). These risk factors add a mother's age group and her nourishment during motherhood; if there is drug, liquor, or cigarette use or maltreatment; as well, potential maternal diseases, such as Assists or rubella, and environmental hazards, including water, food, and polluting of the environment (Kail). These risk factors are often known as teratogens, which can be thought as any agent that triggers there to be a disruption to normal prenatal development (Kail). There is a lot evidence to claim that there may be results to prenatal development from exposure and overexposure to teratogens (Kail?). Known deleterious effects from teratogens include a child being born with low delivery weight and prematurely; retarded expansion and cognitive delay; as well as, impaired motor control, memory and verbal skills (Kail). However, there may be little research on the possible undesireable effects maternal psychological conditions and stress may have on an unborn child (1). Therefore, this newspaper will examine the prevailing research and literature surrounding this issue of maternal stress during pregnancy. **More specifically, this newspaper will establish stress and discuss the human being body's biological reaction to stress, then it will summarize the possible impact maternal stress may have on both prenatal and postnatal development, as well it will provide suggestions for minimizing stress and promoting healthy prenatal development.

Stress, for the purpose of this paper, will be thought as any problem, either physical or internal, that has the capacity to threaten the inner homeostasis of any organism (2 little 3). What a person may experience to be as a stressor may vary (1). A stressor could range from a traumatic life event, such as a death or divorce, to simple daily complications, such as financial problems and relationship woes (1). Although the amount of stress response differs across individuals, the body's biological a reaction to stress is the same (1). Mulder et al. (2002) explain that when a person is subjected to a stressor, the individual's complete stress regulation system is activated; this means that numerous hormones are released into the blood in large amounts, which in turn reach the growing fetus (1). In one review, observations were considered of fetal behavior using an ultrasound (1). Fetal activity was watched in two groups of mothers: one low stress, one high stress and anxiety (1). It was observed that neonatal activity was much higher for fetuses of high nervousness mothers (1). Therefore, it is visible that maternal stress is associated with increased fetal activity within the womb (*). Because of critical periods which exist during prenatal development, it is essential to examine the impact maternal stress may have on both prenatal and postnatal development.

Mulder (2002) et al. note that although past stress and prenatal research occurred using and observing animals, recent evidence from well-conducted studies shows that a direct relationship exists between maternal stress and certain being pregnant complications. There is certainly evidence to suggest that high stress levels during being pregnant can lead to numerous being pregnant and birth issues such as miscarriage, low beginning weight, pre-eclampsia, and preterm delivery (3). In regards to low birth weight, corresponding to (1 little 25), the impact of maternal stress is similar to the magnitude of impact that smoking can have on a producing fetus. **

In addition to labour and delivery problems that can occur credited to maternal stress during motherhood, the exposure to maternal stress prenatally may also contribute to sustained impacts on the infant's health status, disease fighting capability, and neurocognitive development (2). As well, babies of women subjected to high degrees of stress look like at risk for particular neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cerebral palsy and schizophrenia, and mental disorders affecting interpersonal, behavioural, and emotional development (4). Ruler and Laplante (kail) performed a longitudinal study evaluating maternal stress during prenatal development and infant's later development and ability. The members were selected based on their location in Quebec, which had been subjected to an ice storm (Kail). The researchers found that the ladies in the analysis experienced lots of stressors because of the ice storm, including a loss of electricity, a loss of or damage to shelter, physical harm, and anxiety and stress over the security of others (Kail). The members were contacted a complete of seven times between June 1998 and the child's sixth birthday (Kail). King and Laplante mentioned that moderate to high maternal exposure to stress is associated with baby cognitive, vocabulary, and play deficits at age group two (Kail). It really is evidenet that research is accessible that outlines the potential negative impact that maternal stress can have on a child during prenatal development.

In newer years, initiatives have been designed to help reduce the amount of stress that a pregnant woman may need to cope with (1). The explanation behind minimizing maternal stress is that "healthy mothers will have healthy pregnancies and deliver healthy babies" (McCain and Mustard, 1999). Corresponding to McCain, Mustard, and Shanker (2007) all degrees of the Canadian government are beginning to invest in a variety of services, campaigns, and programs to help promote and assist women is having a wholesome pregnancy, birth, and later child development. Some specific efforts in reducing a pregnant woman's stress include telephone calls or appointments from a social worker, providing information regarding healthy being pregnant, and help to optimize support from other sociable environments (1). Furthermore, Ruiz and Avant (2005) recognize the necessity for doctors to understand the adverse affects maternal stress can have on an evergrowing child. For instance, nurses should prescreen pregnant patients for increased levels of stress (2). Although there are few reliable options for determining prenatal stress, nurses are encouraged to ask questions and set up a good rapport with the patient to be able to assess stress levels (2).

Although little research is out there on this issue of prenatal stress and later labor and birth and infant development issues, there will do information to suggest a link between maternal stress and prenatal development (2). Stress during being pregnant as a teratogen is a subject that is recently gaining more attention (2). Research is accessible that has observed the prospect of labor and birth and labour problems due to maternal stress as well as the probability of language, cognitive, and behavioural deficits in later years (1). Recently, research has shifted to give attention to efforts to reduce or decrease stressors for women during being pregnant (2). **Analysts are advocating for the need for even more research to be completed so that information founded interventions for stress can be developed (2). Overall, research shows that maternal stress has an impact on the expanding fetus and development in later years.

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