False heroes. Identification of the true hero - Political psychology

False Heroes. Identifying the true hero

The moment of the hero's accession, the moment of acceptance of the fullness of the supreme authority is preceded in the scheme of the heroic myth by the appearance of numerous contenders, who falsely assign themselves heroic deeds. Within positivistic cultural anthropology, there are many versions that explain the appearance of false heroes. The need for explanation is due to the extreme stability of the motive. The acceleration of the entry of a motive into the logic of a heroic myth is so significant that for the appearance of false heroes, not always sufficiently motivated motives are needed. To fix this kind of helplessness and cultural anthropology, even the formula of "self-elimination" has arisen. hero, his temporary absence. In cultural anthropology, the disappearance of the hero is the minimum necessary course of the myth-generating consciousness, so that minimal, purely formal possibilities for the appearance of a false hero arise.

The appearance of false heroes is a manifestation of the threat of depersonalization of all successful acts that were carried out at the previous stages of the heroic myth. There is an opportunity for each of the applicants to identify the acts of the heroic myth with them. Heroic subjects reveal the danger of belonging to everyone, i.e. to anyone. Thus, the reduction in crisis tension after the culmination of formulas gives rise to an obvious danger of depersonalization.

The myth-generating consciousness models the adjacent depersonalization of the heroic space by the threat of the accession of the "false" hero. The myth-producing consciousness is capable of perceiving in an explicit form the impersonal consciousness, so the process of returning to an impersonal and static equilibrium is perceived as a threat to the accession of the "untrue" hero, illegal applicant. The process of depersonalization is perceived as "wrong", "false" personalization. As a consequence, there may be several episodes with the "impostors" that consistently challenge the right to lead.

The considered formula is characterized by a representation of the "right", "true" ruler. According to myth-generating logic, it is assumed that if the ruler is "true", then the board can not be bad.

Given the syncretism of the myth-generating consciousness, it is not surprising that the notion of the responsibility of the ruler includes an extremely wide range of social, economic and natural tasks. Their solution is connected in the ritual-mythological typology with the moral justice of the leader. The latter must prove its right and its ability to maintain a stable order. If the self-styled hero, the community is waiting for new disasters of a very diverse nature. The crisis state, the imbalance in myth-generating logic, is seen as the result of an "incorrect" personalization, a kind of mythological transcription of the "leadership crisis".

It should be emphasized that the consciousness mechanism fixing the "leadership crisis" and correlating it with other types of crises, works as a whole in the stable logic of the heroic myth. Given the massive prevalence of crisis formulas, it is necessary to note: the formula "crisis of political leadership" genetically and typologically correlated with the structure of the heroic myth. Not necessarily a crisis of political leadership involves a model that includes all elements of a heroic myth. Different combinations of initial, culminating and final formulas are possible. The concept of the "political leadership crisis" is completely representable by a single formula, which can vary, correlating with the technicalist, tribalist typologies. However, the logic of personalism remains unchanged.

Since political leadership is primarily developed in the cultural and symbolic dimensions of the political process, the formula of "identification", the formulas of "truth" extremely close to the practice of leadership. How much the problem of true leader is insignificant in the practice of decision-making, in the process of "bidding", is so painful and significant for the "representative" style of political leadership.

The false formula a candidate for the role of a heroic leader is extremely common in the domestic political struggle. In this case, just as in archetypal models, the main criteria are almost exclusively correct followings to abstract moral and ethical imperatives. In a market-oriented culture, the most radical is the "refusal" from personal gain, from economic activity in personal business. Similar refusal is noticeable and accepted and for the market culture is inevitably heroized. At the same time, false claimants are issued with the "failed" formulas, so the identification of "true" hero and, therefore, "true" leader is carried out according to how full is his "refusal" imperatives.

Violence and terror are inseparable. All Indo-European mythologies, as the French philosopher J. Dumezil notes, reflected only one problem: how to curb the hero, who exudes excitement and determination. Horace, frenziedly insane winner, the murderer of his own sister Camilla, symbolized for Rome the danger of unrestrained ardor, which does not spare even its own. The autonomization of terror for the sake of terror alone will not tell anyone anything.

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