Features of human activities
The second difference of a person is this is the appearance of labor activity and its development to industrial and agricultural production. On this basis, such specific types of human activity arise, as scientific, educational, and creative. The difference between labor activity lies in the fact that, while remaining ultimately adaptive, it becomes creative, productive, creating what was not in the world before the activity (new objects and new living conditions). It becomes a tool, i. It is carried out constantly with the help of tools, which are created for the first time in labor activity. The production and constant use of tools alters the mental regulation of activity, since neither the manufacture nor the use of tools is associated with the inherent needs. With the help of guns, a person forces objects to interact so that the desired goals are achieved. But the tool also changes the composition of activities in the activity, creating new functional systems of organs.
For example, for a high jump, the natural ability of the legs to push is used. Using the pole allows you to achieve great results through the inclusion of the work of the hands and the whole body - now the jump is the result of the functioning of the new system: legs, arms, body.
The gun becomes a powerful means of knowing nature and itself. A. de Saint-Exupery wrote: "Man learns himself in the struggle against obstacles. For this fight he needs tools. Need a plane or plow ... Yes, of course, the plane is a car, but at the same time what a tool of knowledge! ". Later we will see that the tool performs another and very important function - it becomes a means of communication and a means of storing the socio-historical experience of people. The manufacture of tools draws a chain of metal mining, the manufacture of machines and tools for their manufacture, i.e. holistic production. The making of tools and then items of various needs, on the one hand, requires a person to build this new before it is manufactured, and, on the other hand, transforms the world, creating in the end a "historical nature", i.e. new conditions of life on earth.
Another distinctive quality of labor activity is its collective nature. Even simple types of joint food production require the association and coordination of the efforts of the participants in the hunt. The pit or pit in which beaters are trying to drive animals are created in advance, and they determine the direction of the movements of the beaters. In complex work activities, participants' actions are coordinated by the ultimate goal, which limits the freedom of action of each participant. Therefore, in labor activity, people obey both the logic of the produced object, and the logic of the tools that they use, and the logic of relations with other people in joint work. Collectivity of labor manifests itself in joint actions, always relies on the experience of predecessors, and the results of activities are always intended for people. Thanks to this, it becomes possible to exchange the results of activities that allow satisfying the needs of the individual not at the expense of their individual actions, but through the combined labor activity of society, and then of all humanity.
It is clear that the collective nature of labor activity generates the problem of people's communication about joint actions. Natural communication in humans, like in other species of animals, is associated with the solution of various biological problems based on the natural language of cries, gestures, postures, smells. In the work there arises the task of forming a new type of language capable of planning and coordinating joint actions based on the exchange of information about the world.
This aspect of labor activity was well expressed by the French pilot and writer A. de Saint-Exupery who was quoted repeatedly by us: "The greatness of any craft can be, first of all, that it unites people: for there is nothing more precious in the world ties that connect man to man. "
Features of the human community
The third characteristic of man is a new type of relationship between people. Herd relations of people have been replaced (or rather - modified and supplemented) by social social relations. There were states with their institutions (army, police, courts, prisons, authorities), which began to regulate the relations of people in a joint life; a morality with estimates of "good - bad", "morally - immoral" arose. in the behavior of people; production was created that gave rise to relations between people and within production (boss-subordinate), and about ownership of these industries. There appeared social activities (management, politics), communication was singled out as an independent activity of people. People's relations have ceased to be natural or, more precisely, only natural. Now it was necessary not only to take into account the interests and activity of other individuals, but to reckon with them, as well as with the interests of the whole society and the state. People's behavior began to be regulated by invisible rules and laws, unwritten norms of morality, interests and needs of other people, absent during the behavior of a particular individual.
Features of the human psyche
The fourth feature of man is the uniqueness of his psyche. This specificity is determined both by the new capabilities of the human brain, and by the peculiarities of its way of life and the relationships of people with each other. People have a new level of reflection (consciousness) and a new language for fixing the results of knowledge and communication. This allowed the emergence of creativity, which has no adaptive function (visual arts, music).
Thanks to the production of tools and items of need, and also to language, social and historical experience has been formed, and now all the achievements of mankind can be stored separately from their authors and be accessible to all, accumulating in history. This allowed to increase sharply the possibilities of each person, his development began to occur on the basis of appropriating this experience as mastering the social skills of behavior (using human subjects and following the rules of behavior). The requirements of society set the task of mastering a person by their behavior and psyche (arbitrariness), and life in society gave birth to new needs and personal qualities. A person becomes a person and builds his behavior not only according to the laws of survival, not only according to the desire for success in society (the culture of utility), but sometimes also contrary to them, in accordance with the norms of morality (the culture of dignity - A. G. Asmolov).
It's easy to see that these four features of the person correlate with each other (Figure 7.1), and the question arises about the determining origin of these correlations.
Fig. 7.1. Human features relationships
Theoretically, two solutions can be found:
1) there is an external force that determines all or part of a person's characteristics, and they therefore correlate with each other;
2) one of the features of a person is the main one that determines the other features of a person.
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