Features passive-feminine character - Psychoanalysis...

Traits of a passive-feminine nature

Is it possible to point out some properties of this character? Reich notes exaggerated politeness and compliance, softness and cunning. Here is what Reich wrote about one of the patients: "Phenomenologically, this was a typical passive-feminine character. The patient was always friendly and complaisant; he apologized for any, even the most insignificant occasion. In addition, he was timid, clumsy and dependent on the circumstances. "

Another feature of this type is submission. What is holding back the energy of such a person? What happened to his aggression? The passive-feminine structure is fixed in genitality, but at the same time it is stricken with fear. If one or another person has reached the genital stage of development, he can no longer return to the previous, pregenital stage. Therefore, the problem is complicated by the fact that a man of this type is ordered a way forward and backward. One can characterize the situation in this way: a passive-feminine carrier reaches the genital stage of the organization I , but then he experienced a shock of fear. The essence of the matter is precisely in this paralysis.

Therefore, the essence of passive-feminine character is expressed in the conflict between weak genital impulses and strong genital disappointment. The energy pendulum of such a person is fixed in genitalia, but the charge is very weak. Patients of this type often complain of premature ejaculation. Undoubtedly, castration complex influenced the formation of such a character.

Such a character can have the same source as the oral character. Imagine an early weaning, which did not lead to the suspension of psychosexual development. The child, despite deprivation, reached the genital stage of the organization of the I, but the oral component had its effect. The genitality was weak ... If during the period when the child developed and his genitality and aggression were encouraged, the oral element may disappear ... The weaker organism does not give up genitality. He is only able to renounce aggression and occupy a passive tradition ... A man of this type can identify himself with a woman. As a child, it helped him overcome the fear of castration. His need for contact with a woman is associated with child oral pathology, it is this need that comes into contact with the impulse to detachment and satisfaction. That's why a person with a passive-feminine character behaves with a woman, like a child. He is not able to be a "man" with a woman ... Here are lines from a diary of one woman who describes a passive-feminine character: "I am now solving the question: to live on with Denis or not. I'm sick of being a mommy for my husband. In the morning he is able to make a scandal because I bought my son a cake, but did not buy my husband. But this is his favorite cake ... I'm living now with a single exhausting thought: why am I with this person? I bring him pain and suffering ...

In the article "The Economic Problem of Masochism" Freud did not investigate female masochism. In the work "Psychoanalytic theory of neuroses" Fenichel mentions this problem when discussing perversions ... The partial pregenital attraction competes with the primacy of genitality. Passive-human character is an individual whose traditionally feminine features are so pronounced that they define one of the aspects of his personality. This may be a problem of homosexuality.

A young man (30 years old) complained that he can not speak while in a group of people. He did not receive satisfaction from the profession and love. The main qualities characteristic of this type, according to Reich, are exaggerated politeness and pliability, softness and cunning.

Other researchers have focused on the "passive-receptive" installation, or obedience. A soft, effeminate voice. The impression that a woman speaks is due to the lack of deep resonance and sharpness. The facial expression is soft and plastic. Movements are never sharp, and they do not feel pressure. The body can be either rounded, with rather narrow shoulders and narrow hips, or V-shaped, with broad shoulders and narrow hips. Hands are soft and rather weak. These manners are well described by Reich.

People who want to solve their own psychological problems often turn to a practicing psychologist. Patients talk about their turmoil, fear, communication problems, inferiority complex, about the complex, often contradictory perception of the reality of other people and themselves, about psychosexual difficulties. Patients are waiting for a qualified consultation, which, they believe, will help to find a way out of the confusing situation, to expand the possibilities of self-knowledge, to overcome the crisis, to feel bodily pleasures, to increase one's own energy.

The patient sitting in front of me, cheerfully and ironically, is ironic.

- I'm 33 years old, - he says and smiles knowingly - the age of Christ. At worst, the epic hero. I do not have a work book. Yes, and it was not. My parents are not poor people. Money is ... Mom treats me like I'm still unintelligent. He watches me dress. In the winter he tries to wrap me up. Tries to guess all my desires. No, it does not bother me. Rather - on the contrary. It's interesting that the women I meet with also show too much attention to me. A kind of custody ... I like to pluck flowers of pleasure. Is not that what the unforgettable Khlestakov said? But sometimes I feel bitter. It seems to me that I will die in a baby cradle. But I'm not a boy anymore ...

- Do you have a bride?

- What are you! My novels do not last more than two or three months. You know, I was just amazed. Duration as it is in advance stipulated. First acquaintance.

- How does it happen?

- Somewhere in the company, I choose a possible passion. After the party, I suggest that a woman go to me and have a cup of coffee. The companion at once makes it clear that she understood the hint. She stays with me, and the romance begins.

- What interrupts it?

- Soon it is found out that all the topics are discussed, and we begin to talk about what does not already have a shade of novelty. Suppose I gave my girlfriend a bouquet of roses. She suddenly burst into tears. It turns out that these are the first flowers in her life. My husband does not even come to the head, as she needs such a manifestation of feelings. However, you will agree, the theme of petals and thorns soon becomes fresh. I stop answering phone calls. To put it simply, I do not open the door ... But at the same time, I get anxiety in anticipation of a new intimacy ...

- Tell, if you can, about what scares.

- Professor, it's something intimate. The first night I'm constantly in a situation of embarrassment. You understand how a man ... I'm not complaining about health. But it's like rock. There is another oddity. All my women are eight years older than me.

There is a challenge to nature in this. For some time now, I started to think about this oddity.

A low-skilled reader might think that a practicing psychologist easily and easily reveals any secrets of the human psyche. The science of the soul is developing so rapidly! How many new discoveries and approaches! However, any knowledge turns out to be abstract in meeting with the inner inner life of a person. Personally, I, unwinding the next clinical history, always feel embarrassed. If a person has extensive knowledge, this does not mean that he has become a psychologist. It is important to be able to apply them. Find in them a grain of what is significant for this particular case.

Why is my interlocutor, experiencing the delights of life, feels bitter? Why, not forgetting about tenderness, is so utilitarian about women close to him? What motivating reason makes him look for a friend who is older than him by a strictly measured number of years? What is the reason each time he leads to constant breakdowns? Finally, is it possible, by taking from life its best gifts, to feel unhappy?

In subsequent sessions, the patient tells that when he was seven years old, his cousin came to their house. She was eight years older than he. There was no one in the house. The cousin undressed and called him. He began stroking her on the back, on her hips. Then he touched the genitals ...

The first psychological impressions have a huge impact on a person. Passes for decades, but long-standing events continue to affect human behavior. And the patient even often does not realize this. Moreover, after the discovery of secrecy, a man for a long time still does not see an obvious connection between his actions and the distant events of childhood. You think, the child touched the genitals of a teenage girl! When it was! And in fact at this moment the type of sexual behavior of my patient began to develop. His genitality was incomplete. Further development of it went according to the female pattern. After all, a seven-year-old child was impressed by a woman's breast. Maybe more so than genitals.

Becoming an adult, he shows interest only to those who are older. In every new woman he is looking for his own cousin. That first experience was not genital in the full sense of the word. The reader probably guessed why the first sexual intimacy with another woman ends up as embarrassment for him. After all, it was a new meeting with the cousin, which provoked genital sensations, but there was no sexual intimacy.

Psychoanalytic or bioenergetic work is easy at first, but soon comes up against typical resistance. On the one hand, the patient talks a lot about his early childhood, providing the therapist with rich material, but does not show any affect. On the other hand, the patient is anxious and wants to be asked about something, but again without his own active participation in the process. Resistance manifests as non-participation I in therapeutic work under the guise of an "exaggerated positive transfer". And yet this positive transfer is just the true and real expression of the I, behind which stands the negative resistance.

Let's give an example from the therapeutic work of A. Lowen. The man worked as a furniture designer. Soft voice and manners, polite, showed a willingness to cooperate. His main problems of life stemmed from constant opposition to authorities and the impossibility to achieve satisfaction in a romantic relationship. In his face, there were no sharp features, in particular, there were no deep nasolabial folds. The body was round, not sharp, the shoulders narrow. The third time I married a girl who for many years was younger than him. For several months he was sexually aroused, but soon the sexual attraction to the girl diminished, and she herself had to take the initiative. He was interested in another woman, and he found himself constantly examining the breasts of every woman who would meet him. It since the childhood. So there is a mental abnormality called voyeurism.

Father - old, pedantic, easily annoyed. Mother is nervous. He was jealous and envied her, but at the same time loved and admired her. The boy showed worms. It gave him great pleasure when his mother took them out of him. In five years he began to masturbate, and he was constantly tormented by a sense of fear and guilt because of this. I remembered how my mother warned him that you can not touch the penis. He clearly remembered himself from the age of six. One evening, while going to bed, he suddenly saw a pale male face staring at him from behind a dark window.

Ejaculation, which once ended masturbation, led him into confusion. Another time, he fainted at the sight of the blood that had trickled from his chopped hand, and the teacher told him that it was because of masturbation. In his teens he was haunted by thoughts of death. The two boys he was friends with were killed in an accident, and he was sure that he would also die soon. He was tormented by the fear of darkness. I remember: a woman's body interested me already when I was very young and sucked on my chest. I remember how excited I was when my mother hugged me, everything that I saw excited me, although before us, children, she never undressed. "

Sexual experiences in adolescence were limited to petting. The first sexual intercourse with a prostitute did not bring pleasure. He was afraid of venereal diseases. Later, when his sex life became regular, he was never sure that he loved his girlfriend. One of the complaints - tired and lost enthusiasm. In his life there were two periods when he was able to mobilize and show considerable activity and aggressiveness. The first is a business enterprise. It became monotonous, and interest in it disappeared.

In one of his love affair, which lasted for two years, the patient played an aggressive role and was very attached to the girl. For her part, the girl on the contrary did not show activity in the relationship and eventually left for another. He felt that his affection was intrusive and, despite the torment of jealousy, refused to think of marrying the girl.

Bioenergetic work with this patient lasted little more than a year, and all this time we met twice a week. At the first lessons he complained of fatigue and lack of energy. On the couch and at movements his body looked heavy and heavy. His eyes and face were dull. Breathing was hampered. At the end of the classes, there was some progress. The expression of the face and look cleared, the body a little animated, and the voice became deeper. But the new occupation began again with the same complaints. The improvement did not persist. From this setting, it became apparent that the patient has strong masochistic features.

From the masochistic nature of his distinguished that he never complained of anxiety. Unlike the phallic type, there was no noticeable superficial muscle tension. Turgor was absent, below the navel the skin was white, cold and lifeless. One day, moving his eyes, the patient said that they are "wooden" and inanimate & quot ;. The general impression that I had after the first classes was that his body was motionless. There was no severe depression, and although he had thoughts about suicide, he thought it would be more likely to die from a brain tumor for many years, like his father. He was disturbed by physical symptoms. He complained of a numbness of the skull above the right side of his forehead, three inches in diameter. He constantly rubs this place, trying to revive it. Palpation showed that the skin here was drier and flaked easier than from the opposite side, but nothing else could be found.

Lowen tried to direct the therapy in order to mobilize energy and increase mobility, but it was more difficult to do than I expected. The only real reaction I managed to provoke was a gag reflex, but even here I was confronted with a noticeable insensitivity to the throat. Only due to a strong pressure on the pharyngeal constants I managed to cause a reaction. The patient could not withstand any manipulations that caused pain. He avoided such situations. Long, arbitrary movements caused nausea, and he stopped them. I used this to induce a vomitive reflex. Twice, the patient felt the energy rising to the head, in particular, to the necrotic area of ​​the skull.

Continuing therapy seems to have gradually produced an effect: fatigue is gone, and energy is somewhat more. One day during the session, the patient noticed that he felt that his movements were feminine. When Lowen suggested that he straighten his body and spread his hands, this feeling disappeared. The patient also noted a lack of energy in the pelvic region and in the genitals. To this he attributed his indecision and impotence. Unlike the phallic-narcissistic nature, in which the pelvis is charged, but spastic, in this patient it was soft and rounded. The male pelvis was absent in the male, which corresponded to his lack of aggressiveness in general.

The question arises: what was holding back the energy of this organism? Since we are dealing not with oral and not with masochistic characters, it is necessary to understand what happened to his aggression. He really showed the features of masochism, constantly complained of fatigue, suffered from spinal meningitis and felt heaviness in the body. The fact that he is fixed on the anal function, followed from his memory of the mother extracting worms from his anus. But a real masochist is never passive and feminine. He tries to become more aggressive, although this ends for him a breakdown and failure. The passive-feminine type is more in keeping with the Freudian concept of female masochism.

A person with a passive-feminine character does not experience a breakdown due to aggressive behavior, as he never behaves aggressively. In this case, the decay of forces comes after decisive and long-lasting actions to affirm his I. Lowen had in mind his anti-war activities, which can be interpreted as a protest against authoritarianism and ultimatum, against his father. A real masochist never rises to the level of protest. The patient was quite stiff enough not to experience a constant decline of strength, but, unfortunately, it immobilized his aggression.

Lowen did not leave the impression that energy is blocked in the throat; The chest was stiff and did not move when breathing. Although the abdominal muscles were tight, breathing was still weak. Exposure to the chest wall caused severe anxiety. The tension was located deep in the intercostal muscles. It should be noted that the patient complained of heart palpitations, which he noted from time to time for many years. Lowen did not stop working with the chest wall. Pressing was very painful for him, but allowed more to learn about the dynamics of the structure. In view of the strong throat spasm and deep pelvic tension in the patient, it would be unreasonable to create internal pressure without providing an adequate outlet for the resulting stress.

Continuation of work with a vomitive reflex, with the expression of negative feelings and blows on the couch did not give the desired result. Lowen did not manage to mobilize aggression sufficiently to achieve liberation of feeling. Despite gradual progress, the complaints remained the same. These complaints pointed to a masochistic element in the structure of the character, which required constant and persistent elaboration. However, Lowen understood another expression of this person, which indicated the severity of his disorder.

Almost every effort caused a groan in the patient. The physiological cause of this was a violation of natural respiratory movements. But Lowen worried about the psychological significance of these sounds. He suggested that this was an expression of the position of humility. As if the patient was saying: "I'm old, life requires such an effort from me ...". Usually a person groans when making maximum efforts. If a groan is accompanied by every effort, it can be assumed that the patient is working almost at the limit of his physical abilities. Since even this is not enough for success, one should expect the appearance of feelings of hopelessness and despair.

These feelings in a person with a passive-feminine character structure that does not seek an outlet in homosexuality can not be underestimated. From a psychological point of view, aggression (movement forward) is blocked by a strong castration fear; regression is impossible because of the same strong fear of homosexuality. A real homosexual has a different bioenergetic dynamics. He has a rejection of genitality, although it can be argued that she was not firmly established. Passive-feminine structure, unlike homosexual, is fixed in genitality, but it is immobilized by fear. With masochism and oralism, the problem can be solved at the pregenital level. With this structure of character, the situation is complicated by the fact that movement is impossible neither forward nor backward. It looks like an individual with a passive-feminine character reaches the genital stage of the organization I , but then paralyzes with fear. It is in this paralysis that his problem lies.

It is always difficult to overcome characterological problems. It is necessary to strengthen the weakness of the structure and at the same time reduce the compensating rigidity. A weak point in the structure of the character of this patient was an element of masochism with the threat of collapse, while rigidity gave a sense of security and support. It was necessary to carefully analyze both of these violations and use the appropriate means to overcome them. The masochistic problem in this case was similar to what we saw in the chapter on masochism. Since the normal genital aggression of the rigid structure is blocked, the rigidity of the passive-feminine character has its own specific features.

The patient had a very authoritarian father, whom he feared. As a child, he never dared to protest against his desires or against himself. From him it was required to fulfill everything that my father wanted. Gradually the boy became more and more passive. Father severely reprimanded him for every failure, called awkward, awkward, stupid, etc. On the other hand, the younger sister was a real favorite. In relation to the patient, a significant aspect of his character has appeared to the sister and to women in general.

On different occasions, the patient told me about his strong interest in the female breast. This was the basis for his tendency towards voyeurism. He liked to watch the woman undress. Sexual intercourse as such did not interest him. He liked not only to look at the woman's breasts, but also to caress her. Then he made a gesture with his hands, as if taking a breast and shaking it. Lowen asked him to demonstrate this gesture. When he increased the movement, he puffed out his jaw and clasped his hands as if he wanted to tear off his chest. Thus, the patient first expressed strong hatred.

In relation to his sister, the patient experienced ambivalent feelings. He was jealous of her and envied her and at the same time loved and admired her, feeling her superiority. Now everything became clear. The chest symbolized the penis, but this did not cause my patient to worry about his penis. His envy and resentment could be explained by his feelings about the fact that a woman can not be castrated, and he himself can be. In addition, the breast is the source of life, and therefore it was for him a symbol of strength.

The conflict with the authoritarian father was transferred to the sister and other female members. The woman turned into his rival and enemy, and on this basis he had an identification with her. Why did the transfer occur? We can only say that the conflict between the genital impulse and the fear of castration, which caused him complete paralysis, had to be somehow resolved. Interest in the breast meant a kind of regression, but not at the infantile level. Passive-feminine man does not want to be a child, he wants to be a woman. At the same time, he brings down on his woman all his hatred, caused by fear of his father. However, he does not leave the genital position. At the I level, he demonstrates women's tendencies, at the genital level shows masculine qualities, but remains passive.

When analyzing this type of character, you come across the fact that the patient speaks of a strict father without apparent anger. And although he can express hatred towards women, it does not give anything, because it is a protective education. First, by analyzing the transfer situation, it is necessary to resolve the conflict with the man. The patient should see that behind his politeness, complaisance and desire to please the analyst lies deep hatred for the superior man. But the problem is complicated by the fact that such patients agree with the therapist, but nothing changes. They care so much to please that they can agree with the mind, but do not feel it. To achieve an affective reaction, the pressure on the patient should be no less severe than the father's previous pressure. This can be done either through character analysis, or bioenergetically, but both methods are painful.

From a psychological point of view, the patient experienced a transfer of resistance to his father to a female figure. From a dynamic point of view, there was an outflow of energy from the genitals to the chest. But the genital position remained intact. Energy does not go all, but only part of it, sufficient to reduce conflict and prevent paralysis. When enough energy goes down, the Oedipus conflict is reactivated. There is a noticeable resistance. The transfer situation receives a charge. In this regard, work with your feet should be brought to the pain point. It is necessary to mobilize aggression, and if this is achieved by striking the couch, then it must be brought to a state close to collapse. It is necessary to release tension, restraining the movement of the pelvis forward and protrusion of the jaw, and this is also painful. It is not necessary to say that all these actions must be combined with character analysis so that the patient fully understands their importance.

In a passive-feminine man, the main stress is on the deep muscles, while the superficial musculature is relatively soft. This is manifested in the soft movements characteristic of such men. Immobilization of genital aggression prevents the normal development of male muscles, if this is not a secondary, compensating phenomenon. So, there are two factors that explain the appearance of women's tendencies. First of all, this is the fear of normal male development, which is further identified with a woman.

Thus, the passive-feminine character structure is a consequence of the conflict between weak genital impulses and strong genital frustration. Here, too, rigidity is strong, acting as an immobilizing force, which almost leads to a complete suppression of male aggression. This Lowen illustrates with another example. The patient in question will also visit various analysts for many years. Experience has shown that this was a difficult case, and the patient's condition improved very slowly. He had several complaints: one of them was that he could not speak while in a group of people, the other in a feeling of stupor and the occasional sensation of a veil before his eyes that prevented him from concentrating. He experienced enormous difficulties in establishing satisfactory love relationships and, in addition, suffered from fistula.

The passive-feminine nature of this patient was clearly manifested in a soft voice, completely devoid of a man's timbre, in soft manners and extraordinary politeness, and in the expression of a face that was becoming boyish, it acquired features of asceticism. On the face, the features of which were very correct, there were no sharp and deep folds and lines. It should be noted that he spoke in a specific way, softly sounding the sound of "p.".

Lowen did not doubt the diagnosis. From his story it was clear that aggressive behavior was unusual for him. The exception was the period of military service and playing sports while in college, when he was a member of the team. It is interesting to note that the patient was not able to express himself to the group only if aggression arose in the group itself. As an officer in the army, he earned respect from both his superiors and his colleagues.

The structure of the body of this patient was quite different than the previous one. He was tall, broad in the shoulders, with very narrow hips and small buttocks. The feet are narrow with heavy contracted arches. Hands and hands were suitable for lower extremities. The patient told Lowen that at the age of four he was forced to wear special shoes to correct any deformity of the legs. What kind of deformation was it, he did not know for sure, but never felt confident on his feet.

It would seem that it can be more courageous than wide shoulders and narrow hips! Are they compensation for a passive-feminine structure? Or, perhaps, they are an expression of this structure? Once, Lowen almost bent to the first point of view, but, realizing that the raised shoulders are an expression of fear, changed his mind. Reacting with fright, a man holds his breath, draws his stomach and raises his shoulders. As a result, it fills the lungs with air and immobilizes energy in the chest. As we have already noted, this is a sign of a passive-feminine character, so that broad, developed shoulders are, rather, an expression of passivity, and not a secondary sign of development. Narrow hips are the result of significant pelvic tension and hips, because of which the pelvic volume decreases and sexual potency decreases.

In this case, it was possible to assume the presence of a pronounced oral component. Weak legs, unusually thin, narrow feet, lack of contact with the ground - all this pathogeny of oral disorders. In addition, the arms and wrists were weak. The thin neck did not match the broad shoulders. The feeling of dullness and shroud before the eyes, about which the patient spoke, made it possible to conclude that his head was not fully charged.

Family history was typical. His father was a successful man, who expected from his son that he would become strong and courageous. My patient felt that he would never fulfill this requirement. Despite strong identification with the mother, the boy never experienced intimacy with her. He had an older brother and a younger sister. It was to her that he was most attached. Lowen was able to analyze and show him his identification with the woman and hostility to her, but this changed little in his character. Everything was reminiscent of the first case, and again due to the fact that we were dealing with defensive education. Again, there is a conflict with a superior male or a therapist.

In this type of passive-feminine nature, the pronounced oral structure element significantly weakens the sexual desire. From the oral nature it is distinguished by a better contact with reality, the lack of a tendency to periodic emergence of states of depression and enthusiasm and much less talkative. The energy pendulum is fixed in the genital function, however, the charge itself is weak. Many people with this character structure suffer from premature ejaculation. The psychological problem behind this is the castration fear.

The development of this kind of structure is due to oral deprivation at an early age and subsequent genital frustration paralyzing aggression. In childhood these people reach the genital stage of the organization of the I, but because of the pronounced oral element, weakness is inherent in it. If during this period the child's genitalia and aggression are encouraged, the oral element gradually disappears. Here, it's all about quantity. To block aggression, such a child does not require the same strong frustration that is necessary to cause this effect in a healthy body. A weaker organism does not renounce genitalia, regression does not occur; he refuses aggression and takes a passive position. From a psychoanalytic point of view, there is a movement from the penis to the chest, which, thus, becomes his deputy. This avoids the fear of castration. The mechanism is the same as in the first case. Female features arise as a result of suppression of natural male aggression and only then - because of identification with a woman.

Passive-feminine individual is characterized by a lack of emotional expression and relative physical immobility. On the one hand, the impulsiveness of the pregenital structure is absent, on the other hand, the aggressiveness of the phallic man is also absent. Rigidity, ensuring genital functioning, immobilizes aggression. Externally, the psychological conflict is concentrated on the attitude towards the woman. Deep need for contact, rooted in oral disorder, at the genital level comes into conflict with the desire for relaxation and satisfaction. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to play two roles at the same time. A person with a passive-feminine character can behave either as a child in a relationship with a woman who is older than him, or as a father in a relationship with a younger and more dependent woman. He is not able to be a "man for woman".

Referring to the case that Reich cites as an example of the passive-feminine type in the book "Character Analysis", one can see that the main analytical procedure is to bring to the patient's consciousness that his aggression is suppressed. If this succeeds, the violation is fully revealed and it becomes possible one by one to study all the strata of the character structure. The resistance is huge. The patient does not refuse to understand that his aggression is insufficient or that his behavior is passive-feminine. The difficulty is how to mobilize a blocked affect. When it turns out that aggression is blocked or suppressed, the importance of this task becomes apparent.

Here the question may arise: is there a female analogue of this nature? Or: if a similar combination of pregenital and genital disorders occurs in a woman, then what is the structure of her character? It is obvious that the structure of the character of a woman will not be similar to the structure of a passively-feminine man, as violations in the woman's personality will reduce her natural feminine qualities.

Like a man, this problem has two aspects. The pregenital tendency arises because of either a masochistic disorder or an oral one. Consider first the first case.

This topic was dedicated to those individuals who reached the genital stage of development in childhood. We talked about what kind of vicissitudes a person faces in the process of becoming a person, despite the favorable circumstances of his path. A girl who has been attracted to her father can become a bearer of a hysterical nature. An analogue of this type in men can be considered a phallic-narcissistic character. Specific problems experienced by a child whose circumstances of life give rise to competition with the parent. Passive-feminine character bears the stamp of orality.

The spectrum of characters is considerable. But it was only about those people who exhibit neurotic disorders. They create personal qualities. Sadistic aspirations may, for example, manifest themselves again in a penchant for surgery or administrative service, as well as in the general non-sexual tendency to suppress the infliction of pain, insult. Sexual masochistic tendencies can be transformed into such traits of character as the desire to experience insults or humiliations. Oral libidinal aspirations can be transformed into a common property of receptivity, greed or greed. Urethral eroticism can become the basis of ambition. We call these patients neurotics. But if the degree of pathology increases, instead of a neurosis, there is already psychosis. Then the analyst is dealing with psychotics. They can include schizoids and schizophrenics.

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