Field Behavior - Child Psychology

Field Behavior

As already noted, at first the child's living space is poorly structured. The infant, according to K. Levin, is interested only in specific things related to the satisfaction of primary (true) needs. For example, if a toy is broken in the eyes of a baby, then it will remain indifferent to this action, while a three-year-old child may have a violent emotional reaction. Thus, as the child ages, the child not only acquires knowledge about the world around him, but he becomes more and more psychologically dependent on him. Therefore, simple knowledge (for example, geography) will not have such an impact on the child as knowledge about the friendly attitude of an adult.

In addition, the baby in comparison with the older child can not in any way affect the surrounding field. It is dominated by the attraction of various objects that form this field; Its movements in this field are due to which object is stronger attracts to your child.

Kurt Levin imagined this process as follows. When a child's need is actualized, all things that are around him immediately begin to be viewed from the point of view of the possibility of satisfying the need, or, as Levin writes, acquire valency. Things with positive valence have an attractive force. They contribute to meeting the need. Things that have a negative valence, on the contrary, do not lead to the satisfaction of any need, and therefore the child remains indifferent to them. If, for example, the child wants to eat, then the ripe apple will have a positive valence for it, and the toy will lose its attractiveness for this time. In other words, the force of attraction from the side of the apple at this time will be greater than from the side of the toy. When the child quenches his hunger, the apple will cease to have a positive valence and the attraction force of the toy, due to the child's need for playing, will come to the fore again.

Thus, depending on the need, each subject in the child's field acquires either attractive or repulsive properties. As a result, the child is under the influence of forces that pull him to positively charged objects. There are a number of difficulties associated with this, which can be observed in the child's behavior. For example, a child wants to get a candy that lies on a table. A child sees a candy, and she attracts it. Thus, the candy sets the direction of movement of the child. Therefore, the child will be inclined to move towards the candy or any attractive object. However, situations in which the child must evade the direction of movement toward the attractive object, cause him serious difficulties. Levin gives the following example. The girl wants to sit on a rock. It moves in its direction, but when it reaches the stone to sit on it, it first needs to turn its back, i. E. to turn away from the object. In this case, the object disappears from the field of perception of the girl, and she loses the direction of movement. Therefore, it turns back to the object, but can not sit on it. The child has no choice but to lie down on a rock and embrace it.

As the child ages, the social environment begins to play an increasingly important role. If a small child is just reaching for a candy, and increasing the distance between himself and the candy will assess negatively, showing displeasure, the older child understands that moving away from the candy and asking an adult does not mean retiring from candy as a goal. After all, an adult can help get it.

Nevertheless, Levin did not deny that the closer the attractive object is, the stronger the child wants to receive it. In other words, even an adult, being in close proximity to an attractive object, is forced to make certain efforts in order to move to another situation (to get out of the power of attraction). This fact is familiar to teachers. In the conduct of the session, a special role is assigned to the organization of the space in which the children will be located. Teachers are trying to remove all unnecessary so that children are not distracted from the task.

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