Forms and stages of the consultative process - Organizational psychology

Forms and stages of the consultative process

From the point of view of methodology, expert, process and training counseling is distinguished.

Expert consulting. The task of the consultant is to diagnose and prepare a plan and program for the development of the organization, prepare a management or organizational solution based on the knowledge of the consultant. The consultant acts as a carrier of expert knowledge that will be applied to the specific situation that has developed in the organization. The consultant works independently of the staff, focusing on the norms that have developed in a specific professional activity. The essence of it is the collection of information necessary for issuing recommendations and informing the client about what and how to do about the problem that is entrusted to him.

Examples: development of a business plan for a customer's order; the development of a system for motivating and stimulating staff; the development of a staff assessment system; development of a system of in-house training.

Process consulting. The task is to prepare the development program for the organization, personnel in particular, in the course of working together with the employees of the organization. It assumes the diagnosis and accounting of corporate culture, the analysis of standards and requirements for staff, traditions, values ​​of the organization. The project is created and implemented with the participation of the main professional groups and their representatives, the management personnel of the organization.

Examples : development of the organization's development strategy; formation of corporate culture; development of standards of organizational behavior.

3. Teaching Counseling provides training to solve important organizational tasks. Training can be special, aimed at forming competencies in highly specialized areas (courses on acquiring accounting knowledge, mastering computer programs, teaching logistics, etc.). Special education is usually conducted in the form of lectures, seminars, less often - in the form of trainings. Technological trainings provide a clear system of skills, without addressing the personal aspects of doing business. Business Psychological Trainings - great attention is paid to the specifics of communication, as business is always communication between people, whether sales, presentations or negotiations.


Examples: the formation of social and psychological competence of managers; client training or sales training, business negotiation training, leadership training and conflict management.

Psychologist-consultant, working with organizations, can accompany the project. Such a model of the work of a psychologist in an organization can be called the escort model. In this case, the psychologist is responsible for solving such problems as:

- Motivation of staff to be included in the project work;

- creating conditions for the negotiation process (an important condition for the development and implementation of the project is the agreement of the key positioners on who, how and for what is responsible, the analysis of the nature of resistances and the development of technologies for their removal).

In other words, in order for the project to be developed and implemented it is necessary to correctly package it, to fill personally with meaningful meanings for the staff, i.e. increase its attractiveness.

Example: the development and implementation of quality management systems in many enterprises in the first stages of resistance, or even active resistance. Therefore, already at the ethane of setting up the strategic task "Implementing a quality management system in the organization of X it requires a competent psychological diagnosis of the situation in the organization, assessment of the degree of motivation of top management and staff, analysis of organizational culture, identification of underlying causes of resistance. Similar work is carried out at enterprise reforming, introduction of quality management systems and the environment, development strategies development, corporate culture formation, organization of in-house training.

The differences between the forms of counseling are removed in the notion of & integrating counseling, when a combination of approaches is necessary in the context of modern business consulting.

In terms of localization of counseling, it can be internal and external (Table 9.1).

Table 9.1

Features of internal and external counseling

Internal Consultant

External Consultant

Depend financially on the employer as a sole source of income

It's independent. Financial responsibility within contract amounts; a certain dependence exists within the contract, but there is no fundamental dependence on the organization, since this type of work is not the only one

Depend administratively; in the organization of processes and the conduct of work depends on the position of the leader, his views and beliefs; depends also on the system of subordination in the organization

Independent administratively; the system of subordination does not have any influence on the process of organizing the process and conducting the work

It is influenced by internal relationships, as it is an integral part of the organization; has to reckon with the norms and rules of organizational behavior adopted by the organization, the informal system of influence and power

It is free from internal obligations and conventions, there is no burden of intrastructural relations. Objective and not preconceived

When developing a program of change depends on the subjective principles, beliefs and positions of the manager, is forced to reckon with the position of top managers

While developing the program, it relies on subjective principles, takes into account beliefs, attitudes, personal relationships with the manager and tone managers, but these approaches and the impact assessments do not have a principled approach to the development and implementation of changes (their sequence)

Is in labor relations with the organization

Performs work under the contract. Relationships are regulated by the current contract, terms of reference and work schedule

The internal consultant works, as a rule, one. Even with an understanding of the system nature of the organization's development, being a professional in all areas is not easy

Works in a team that unites different specialists. If necessary, involves partner organizations. Possesses the ability to solve problems of any complexity

Understand the features and intricacies of business organization; understands current processes; familiar with the facts and trends in the organization, he understands the causal relationship of various events; familiar with the system of formal and informal relations

Often is not familiar with the client's business, and the time for its development is actually paid by the client. It takes a long time to understand the features of the client organization

No experience of solving problems in other organizations

Has extensive experience in solving similar problems in other organizations

Aims are the interests of the organization

Goals - profit and interests of the organization

Conducts a step-by-step systemic development of the organization

Solves specific tasks at a certain stage

A. I. Prigozhin, as the first basis for distinguishing the types of consultants, introduces a degree of specialization in solving the tasks of the client organization.

Specialists are responsible for solving specific problems. There are consultants specializing in the production of office work and document circulation. There are specialists in motivation, personnel audit, personnel certification. They own well-developed technologies for the production of these works and can provide a fairly large number of clients in a short period of time. Solving problems in the field of marketing, advertising also become the subject of increasingly in-depth specialization. Thus, a specialist solves a limited set of tasks, his advantage in deep knowledge of his subject, in the provision of high-quality services in a narrow field.

Generalists do not seek to solve problems directly. They offer methods for their solution. But these methods they have so much variety and variety that they cover the needs of the client. Among these methods there are universal, suitable for a variety of tasks: group and intergroup work, game and facilitation methods, moderation, etc. There are methods special, acceptable only for a small number of tasks, for example: scenario method, technology of increasing client orientation and methods of team building, strategy development, etc. Advantages of "Generalists" in a very broad scope of the interrelated problems of the organization, in their integrated solution, in the possibilities of long-term work with the same organization. Limited their lack of awareness in special areas.

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