Fundamentals of personality psychology, Main features...

Basic psychology of personality

The main features of the psyche and human behavior

The human psyche exists as something integral, a living and indivisible subjective image (see Chapter I). It is a personal, subjective, indivisible system, indissoluble integration. The psychic produces and carries in itself a living person - a person, an individual, an individuality, a subject, and not some of its organs, parts or aspects. With the difference in approaches to understanding the listed terms associated with the generalized category of a person, the concept of personality is one of the key, basic and most used in the domestic literature on psychology, although its interpretation, of course, is far from unambiguous. In addition, the personality is dynamic, changeable, has its own hypothetical evolution.

Evolution or development is not a linear process of gradual quantification of properties or attributes (see Chapter 3), but the obligatory presence of spasmodic, qualitative changes similar to independent branches (or "bushes") from the general, to that same spiral-like "tree of life."

The discrepancy, "distance", the differences between modern man and animals are impassable. In accordance with such concepts the human psyche and behavior have a number of principal features , qualitatively distinguishing a person from all other living things on Earth. These differences do not mean a biological, natural isolation of a person. On the contrary, real connections, interactions and relations of man with the world form the basis of life, set the specifics of the human psyche itself.

The main feature of a person as a species is his primordial sociality. A person appeared, was formed together with society, and the society arose with the man. These categories, phenomena are inseparable, do not exist outside their unity. The latter, of course, does not mean that a person does not have a biological specificity (for example, omnivorousness, uprightness). But its biological features are, to a large extent, socially conditioned, more precisely, united in a certain vital, biosocial humanized unity.

Man exists in the environment not only natural, biological, but also social, social. His psyche produces not only the brain and nervous system, but also social interactions with other people, people's attitudes.

No higher mental function in humans is completely inherited or innate, guaranteed, uniquely determined by biological mechanisms. Each of these acts as the result of lifelong formation and development in the process of social existence, in which special psychological phenomena, mechanisms and patterns, called socio-psychological

L. S. Vygotsky figuratively wrote that for the individual every mental function appears and manifests twice. For a newborn child, it exists as belonging to the whole of mankind ( interpsychically ). Speakers of speech, thinking, experiences, consciousness are the surrounding people. And only in terms of development, formation, socialization of personality, these mental functions are transformed into an internal, intrapsychic existence; become owned by a particular subject.

A person has a special kind of sociogenic mental formations, due to his exclusively social nature. Such psychological phenomena are provided by appropriate biological, nervous substrates, but they in a certain sense "come off" are freed from the primordial biological attachment to life, passing to the level of the broader and multidimensional social category of human existence as subjective being.

It is known that people often commit acts that have nothing to do with maintaining, preserving and continuing their own lives, even going against it in the name of realizing some social, ethical or moral ideals. Psychologists say that only a person can make nonsense. The animal can not do this. Here it is meant that it is not necessary to have a clear biological meaning in the behavior of an individual when, for example, a physically exhausted person continues to work hard to fulfill his public duties. This is possible because a person has a special kind of sociogenic needs , which sometimes do not even have an indirect connection with biological needs (see Chapter 5).

A person is freed from the strict adherence to many of his unavoidable physiological needs. As a result, its behavior is significantly rearranged, becoming in a special free , redundant. Psychic and behavior acquire a specifically human orientation, therefore objects are reflected in the image, actions are performed that do not have a pragmatically narrow, basic value to survive. Reflected, created, transformed by man, the world, in fact, unlimitedly expands for him. There are psychological prerequisites for the emergence of creativity, science and culture, art and religion, all human spirituality.

The second and also socially determined aspect of the human psyche and behavior is to assign, the active assimilation of the individual human experience, historically established in life, existence and activities of previous generations. This experience is not mechanically transmitted from the carrier source to passively received by the detector, and actively processed, assigned, interiorizuetsya in the interaction of man and the world, way and world. There are two means of two forms of such transfer experience:

1) objects and tools of labor, activities in general;

2) signs, languages, and speech.

The tools of labor (hammer, sewing needle, tablespoon, lathe, computer) always carry an learning function, since they predetermine both the end result and the logic itself actions of a person with objects of the surrounding world.

The material activity of man is armed with an instrument as a means, i.e. is mediated. It is believed that animals do not have tools, and a stick used, for example, by an ape to reach the fetus, is only a "biological extension of the arm" (LS Vygotsky); This stick ceases to exist for an animal outside a particular biologically significant situation. Animals do not store tools, do not make them for future use. To make a tool of labor, you must foresee its future use, to predict its meaning or what it will be for. This requires the work not only of thinking, but also of consciousness, which, according to our understanding, is not present in modern animals.

The objects of external activity become materialization, the crystallization of human thought, of the whole psyche. Man is born and exists in the material objective world, which was largely created by previous generations. Houses and streets, paintings and music, clothing and furniture, palaces and slums do not just create an objective environment for the individual. This is a considerable, sometimes leading part of his own psychological environment, which bears in himself a human experience, i.e. necessarily educates and educates the individual. A person lives in a world of things and objects that have some permanent practical purpose. They mediate, arm, qualitatively modify all the behavior and psyche of a person.

Signs , languages ​​ and speech , artificially created by mankind, are psychologically central, the main vehicle for preserving and transferring experience.

A sign (in the most universal and massive form - a word) replaces an object (thing, phenomenon, quality, action) and therefore produces a psychological "doubling" of the world. On the one hand, there is an objective world of real objects. On the other hand, an equally objective world of its symbolic substitutes has been created, with which a person can work independently. The word created by man does not simply replace the world, it as it analyzes it, laying out on the component parts, word-objects. In the very possibility of such a free treatment of the reflected objective world is another side of the freedom of the human psyche and behavior (see Chapter 17).

Moreover, sign systems are internal means, instruments of the human psyche itself. Psychic activity is mediated, by analogy with the instrumental armament of material human activity (LS Vygotsky) . This is convincingly confirmed by numerous experimental studies, for example, perception, memory, thinking, imagination.

The development of the higher mental functions of the personality is not so much a quantitative increase, "ripening" as such, separately, as the expansion, the complication of their internal sign mediation, as well as the development of inter-functional relations and relations between them. The presence of consciousness makes the human psyche manageable.

The formed mental processes are more or less complex, symbolic, verbal, and therefore specifically human.

From this follows another characteristic feature of the human psyche, the presence of possibility, ability and readiness to reflect abstract attributes or properties of objects in the objective world. This is a mental generalization of the reflected world to the level of isolation of objectively existing connections in it and regularities. A person reflects, recreates in a psychic image that which is not given in the form of a sensual, visual experience.

For example, a person can not physically perceive the speed of light, see the device of the solar system, feel the temperature of a thousand degrees. But a person can imagine all this, understand and formulate in the form of various objective and mental sign models, with which he really and permanently lives and works. Hence, a true knowledge of the world is possible for man, what is one more aspect of freedom of the human psyche and behavior (see Chapters 15, 16). It is freedom to know the world and yourself, your place in it. Therefore, fantasies and creativity, foresight and forecast, management and self-management, culture, science, art are accessible and characteristic for the individual.

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