Fundamentals of the theory of P. Ya. Galperin step-by-step formation...

The Basics of P. Ya. Halperin's Theory of the Gradual Formation of Mental Actions and Concepts

The essence of the theory of the step-by-step formation of mental actions and concepts

Analysis of the subject and mental actions, as well as the operations involved in these actions, became the subject of research by P. Ya. Galperin. According to P.Ya. Galperin, "on the part of students, the process of learning is a continuous chain of actions: listening and understanding & lt; ... & gt; read and write, count, add and subtract, produce grammatical, mathematical, historical analysis, etc. - all these are different actions: mental, perceptual, speech, physical. These actions constitute the immediate subject of instruction and a significant part of the subjects of study; the other part of them are representations and concepts, which also need to be understood, learned, applied, ie. too, or obtained through actions, or included in different activities, without which they can not & lt;. & gt; be represented. Formation of actions and concepts with desired, given properties constitutes the central psychological problem of the doctrine. " The theory of P. Ya. Galperin found application in the practice of school education, as well as other forms of education.

The transition of external activity is inwardly called interiorization . According to the conventional view, this term refers to a transition, as a result of which external processes in their form with external material objects , are transformed into processes proceeding in the mental plane, in terms of consciousness; they undergo a specific transformation - they are generalized, verbalized, reduced and, most importantly, they become capable of further development, which transcends the limits of the possibilities of external activity.

Within the framework of this approach, conditions were created that ensured the formation of new knowledge and skills with given indicators. Four sets of conditions were identified:

- the formation of the motivation of the student's actions;

- ensuring the correct execution of a new action;

- education ( working off) of its desired properties;

- the transformation of the action into the mental by its stage-by-stage development.

These conditions were concretized by P. Ya. Galperin in six stages of the formation of mental actions and concepts.

1. The stage of creation and maintenance of the motivational basis of the action.

2. Egan creation of the OOD and clarification of its subjects.

3. The stage of the formation of an action in a material or materialized form.

4. Stage of the formation of action in the fomka of socialized speech.

5. The stage of the formation of the action in the "external speech about oneself."

6. Stage of the formation of action in internal speech.

Stages of formation of mental actions

Action, before becoming mental, generalized, reduced and mastered, passes through transitional states. The main ones are the stages of assimilation of action, each of which is characterized by a combination of changes in the basic properties (parameters) of the action. We will expand them in more detail.

The stage of drawing up the outline of the orienting basis of the action. At this stage the students receive necessary explanations about the purpose of the action, its object, the system of landmarks. Here, the contents of the orienting basis of the action are revealed to the students. They are shown how and in what order all three types of operations are included: orienting, executive and control. This is not an action, but only an acquaintance with it and the conditions for its successful implementation, providing an understanding of the logic of this action, the possibility of implementing it.

We should especially emphasize the difference between understanding how to do and the opportunity to do this, as in the practice of teaching it is often believed that if the learner understands it means that he has learned and the goal has been achieved.

In fact, the assimilation of an action occurs only through the fulfillment of this action by the student himself, and not merely by monitoring the actions of other people. That is why in the theory of step-by-step formation of mental actions after the first stage four more are allocated, where the assimilated action is performed by the student himself.

The stage of the formation of the action in the material (or materialized) form. Students perform the action in an external, material (or materialized) form with the deployment of all the operations included in it.

In this form, the orienting, executive, and control parts of the action are performed. To generalize the action in the training program, tasks that reflect all typical cases of applying this action are included. At the same time, at this stage there should not be a large number of the same tasks, because at this stage it is impossible to reduce or automate the action. The material form of action from the very beginning is combined with speech: the students formulate in the speech everything that they carry out practically.

The stage of the formation of the action as an external speech. At this stage, where all the elements of the action are presented in the form of external speech, further generalization proceeds, but the action is still not automated and not shortened.

The stage of the formation of the action in the external speech to oneself. This stage differs from the previous ones in that the action is performed silently and without prescription - as saying to oneself.

The stage of the formation of the action in the inner speech. At this stage, the action automatically acquires an automatic flow, becomes inaccessible to self-observation.

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