General psychology, Psychology as a scientific discipline...

General Psychology

Psychology as a scientific discipline

General idea of ​​the subject of psychology

The world in which a Man exists and which part is, is indescribably diverse: planetary formations and microbes, mountain ranges and herbs, oceans and seas, sounds, smells and "flood of feelings" etc. There is a nature alive and inanimate, primordial and created by people, animate and inanimate. But for each individual there is another, special and, in fact, the basic gradation of the Great Real World.

Long before the creation of psychology as a science, as a conceptual system of knowledge, a man guessed, discovered and, apparently, was surprised that in his life there are as it were two worlds, two similar, and somehow related, realities. One - material, objective, external, independent of it: for example, a branchy tree on the river bank. Another reality is an internal, subjective, only to the person himself: for example, when a person recalls or sees in a dream all the same tree and river, which in front of him now in reality, objectively is not or never was.

People and life itself exist in changing time and space. The objective world is dynamic: the scene changes, the time of day, the phases of the moon, the seasons of the year. A person lives in the non-stop movement of objective time: he is born, grows and grows up, learns and works, communicates and interacts with other people. The dynamic and subjective world of man is just as dynamic and multidimensional.

Why is it possible to understand, to recognize a person's changes in space and time, to distinguish himself and other people from all this, the perception of the course of life? Because, apart from the objective, reflected world, there is a world reflected, created, cognized by man. This is a world within the personal "I", whose numerous realities are necessary for every person and are no less significant than objective events, time itself and being. In this - the purpose and power of our psyche.

Any person necessarily goes out of life, but in the objective world there are stars and planets, seas and trees, languages ​​and formulas, religions and sciences. There remain other people and humanity itself as a kind, a bearer of active life, of the psyche and consciousness, like Homo sapiens - A reasonable person.

Why is all this accessible to an understanding of any of the pass? What is existence, behavior, being as a whole? How is the accumulation, systematization and transfer of human experience and the existence of civilizations ensured? What in a person directs his activity, asks the attitude to the world and his experience? Sooner or later, every person thinks about such questions (and not always consciously), coming in contact with that which belongs to the sphere of problems and questions of psychology - the only science that was (and remains) initially interested in knowing the essence "secondary", subjective, inner, experienced world.

So, there are phenomena external, material, completely ineradicable, for example a thunderstorm at the beginning of May. But one person does not notice this thunderstorm, the other - is afraid of panic, and the other is a textbook "loves" her (FI Tyutchev). Such differences can not be explained if we do not agree with the existence, besides an external and indisputably objective world, of some other, subjective, but not a secondary reality.

The very reasonableness of man as a special biological, ie. a living being on the Earth is a category in many respects psychological and means first of all the empowerment of the human mind as the consciousness of understanding its own existence as the highest form of psychological subjectivity, > a kind of condition for independence, personal "self", a certain life freedom and independence of one's own existence.

The real world, including man as its component, is integral, interdependent. But traditionally the scientific knowledge of this world went along the path of its artificial, forced analysis, i.e. conditional decomposition into separate components. Initially, the whole world is underlined divided among themselves, different branches of scientific knowledge: physics, astronomy, chemistry, etc. However, the objective world itself has not ceased to be really completed, self-sufficient, existing only in the organic unity of all its interpenetrating components, aspects and manifestations.

The subjective world is present everywhere, in all human deeds. Any cognition or transformation of the world is always carried out by a specific psyche. Therefore, to example} ', compelling economic laws become ineffective if they do not take into account a particular society. Any the most correct didactic and pedagogical principles do not work if they do not rely on the lively and always individualized psyche of performers - students and teachers.

The conversation about the subject of any science only at first sight, only for a beginner student seems somewhat formal, academic and dry, divorced from the needs and tasks of life and scientific practice. In reality, this question is not only and not so much methodological, as applied, deeply practical. After all, from what is understood and formulated the subject of science, directly depends on the means by which it is explored, how the results are interpreted, how they are used in real practice. Any science created and accepted by people exists and develops only when it separates and preserves its specific object, distinguishing it from the broader concept of the object of investigation. The object is similar to the world, whereas the object is analogous to any single model, clearly defined by its scheme, the angle inevitably limited to "turn" research of the whole object. For example, a person is the object of many branches of scientific knowledge: anthropology, philosophy, medicine, psychology, etc. Man as an object of study is inexhaustible.

Object - this is the real, originally holistic, relatively large and discrete, with which science deals, with what it actually works. The object is infinite, multifaceted, multidimensional.

The subject is a clearly distinguished side, a limited projection, a particular aspect of the object to which the research is directly directed.

The private, objective aspects of related sciences can and must cross, increasingly bringing researchers closer to a holistic understanding of the real object.

The very origin of the generally accepted term "psychology", it would seem, does not pose a particular conceptual problem. Psyche soul, which implies that psychology is by definition the science of the soul. However, modern scientific psychology is not accidental and by all accounts is not engaged in the study of the phenomenon of "soul."

Psychology is the science of psyche, mental life and mental activity.

In this definition, a completely conscious substitution of the concepts "soul" and "psyche", which in modern language (and not only United States) are synonyms, i.e. denote certain different, terminologically divorced phenomena. Figuratively speaking, at first psychology lost soul, then in many of its analytical constructions, it also lost the man himself, this soul or psyche of the producing and bearing. So what does modern psychology explore? In other words, what is the psyche as a subject of independent science ?

This whole central methodological, theoretical and conceptual question seeks to answer the entire history of the existence of psychology, the most dissimilar of its schools and directions. In addition, the question of the soul, spirit and psyche was and remains an abstruse philosophical, all-encompassing, in many respects religious, clearly related to the culture, the level of civilization. He still faces science, is present in virtually every psychological study, although not always clearly realized. This is the main and endlessly topical problem of modern scientific psychology.

According to one of the prominent domestic psychologists P. Ya. Galperin, in the history of science, there are not so many approaches associated with a fundamental change in the view of the subject of scientific psychology. Let's give a brief description of them, taking into account two important circumstances.

First, the fact that the textbook is mentioned in several lines, in fact, concealed the intense mental work of many generations of eminent scientists. For the meager words of brief definitions and traditional criticisms - living human thoughts and feelings, finds and losses, human destinies. The interested reader can verify this by referring to the study of any source.

Secondly, the material presented here can not be regarded as purely historical, fully passed and intellectually worked out. Much of the past experience is still incomplete, heuristic, i.e. bearing questions and creative potential, suggesting reflection and development. Something is undeservedly forgotten or simplified by descendants beyond recognition. Unfortunately, in a number of current psychological constructions, certain previous views are easily recognized. Only they are not always called by their original name, for example behaviorism or associationism. They are distorted at the conceptual level, eclectically combined. Such in scientific constructions is unacceptable.

• Chronologically, the first, in fact mythological, was the notion that psychology should be studied as a kind of well-known and undeniable fact.

This long stage (V-IV centuries BC - the beginning of the XVIII century) in the literature is called pre-scientific. It is clear that during this time there were many approaches and interpretations of the "souls" ;, its manifestations and descriptions. Some of them seem naive to modern people, others are strikingly deep and precise.

Suffice it to mention such thinkers-encyclopedists as Plato (427-347 BC), Aristotle (384-322 BC), Democritus (460-370 BC), Socrates (469 -399 BC), Seneca (4 BC - 65 AD), B. Spinoza (1632-1677), R. Descartes (1596-1650) to designate the untold and not subject to exhaustive analysis and unambiguous assessment of the wealth of existing approaches and views.

However, the very basic concept of the soul remained vague, unprovable. For some scientists, the soul is the root cause, the beginning and the basis of the rest of the world (classical idealism), for others it is a material body in a special subtle and mobile organization ( mechanistic , or nondialectic, materialism). Such opposing views still exist as certain axioms, as an expression of the author's not always realized worldview, which does not require an extensive system of proofs. Therefore, the subsequent reflections on the soul are also unprovable, no matter how convincing and colorful they may seem. It is the global, all-embracing, mythological category of the soul that hindered the isolation and formation of a special, object-oriented branch of scientific knowledge.

• Historically, the second and much more restricted view of the subject of psychology was the appearance of consciousness as components of the internal, mental, real world experienced by man. A person always sees, hears, feels, feels, recalls. According to the new approach, it is precisely such phenomena of self-observation that are available to self-observation that should be studied in psychology, since unlike the soul, they can be empirically, experimentally investigated, measured, scientifically generalized, and established in them cause-effect relationships and relations.

The emergence of this approach, and with it the modern psychological science, dates back to the 18th century, when in Europe (in the so-called Western civilization), the period of domination of the cause-and-effect worldview came. Its classical example is strict linear determinism of the physical picture of the world of Isaac Newton (1643-1727). There is a reason, therefore, there is a conditioned law, i.e. unambiguous, understandable and predictable effect. Everything in the world is rigidly determined, and therefore accessible to the objective, including strictly experimental study.

The sources of the new - empirical, physiological, associative, experimental psychology include, for example, the studies of GT Fechner (1801 - 1887), G. Ebbinghaus (1850-1909), B. WundtWundt Wilhelm (1832-1920) - German physiologist, philosopher and psychologist, one of the founders of experimental psychology as a science of "direct experience". From 1851 to 1856, he studied medicine at the universities of Heidelberg, Tübingen and Berlin. Since 1864 - Professor of Physiology in Heidelberg, in 1874 - Professor of Philosophy in Zurich, since 1875 - Professor of Philosophy in Leipzig, where in 1879 he organized the world's first laboratory of physiological psychology, transformed soon into an institution that long years was the most important international psychological center and the only school of experimental psychology for researchers from many countries of Europe and America. Major works: Lectures on the soul of man and animals (1894); "The foundation of physiological psychology"; (1880-1881); Essay of Psychology (1897); The System of Philosophy (1902); Introduction to Psychology (1912); & Natural History & Psychology (1904); The Basics of the Physiology of Psychology (1908-1914); "Fantasy as the basis of art (1914); Psychology of Peoples (1900-1920).}}, F. Galton (1822-1911) and many other specialists in the field of physiology, astronomy, medicine, mathematics. In the new psychological practice, the apparatus of mathematics and of mathematical statistics was introduced. The fundamentals of the actual psychological experiment are being developed. In 1879, the first laboratory of physiological psychology was opened in Leipzig.

Psychology is rapidly developing and spreading in the developed countries of the world, as it demonstrates its usefulness and practical solvency in understanding and solving many socially significant problems related to education, development, and human behavior. However, the basic problem of insufficient certainty of consciousness as a subject of new psychology remains unresolved. He continues to be largely descriptive, indistinct, and therefore, allowing the possibility of an ambiguous, subjective, contradictory interpretation. This does not correspond to the canons of the classical positive science, which psychology aspired to become, and therefore causes discussions, which continue to this day. It should be noted that for the overwhelming majority of modern psychology the conscious psyche remains, if not an object, the only object of scientific research.

• One of the results of such doubts about the objectivity of psychology and the search for its fundamentally different subject was behaviorism , which took shape in the late XIX - early XX century in the United States. Behavior in English means behavior (nu and became the subject of a new objective science.

Specific, measurable external stimuli are acted on the animal's and human's organism, to which an equally objective reaction, response, arises. Hence the classic two-term scheme of the initial, or orthodox, behaviorism: "stimulus-response" ( S R). These components of the scientific model are in accountable cause-effect relations and are subjected to experimental analysis. They can be systematically changed, dosed, i.e. strictly, systematically investigate, without seeking explanation to various subjective or psychological terms.

The design of behaviorism as a scientific direction is associated with the work of such researchers and experimenters as J. Watson, E. Thorndike (1874-1949), K. Lashley (1890-1958), etc. Emerging behaviorism enjoys wide recognition, authority and popularity , is being introduced into many previous and new psychological constructions. This process is typical for the present time, in particular for the many complicated and transformed schemes of so-called "neo-imperialism," which spread not only in psychology, but also in sociology, pedagogy, economics, political science and other branches of humanitarian knowledge.

However, many traditional psychologists and philosophers express serious (theoretical and practical) objections to certain initial assumptions of the behaviourist approach. Behavior and the psyche are, although related, but not identical to reality. Under the influence of the same stimulus, it is possible that there is not a single reaction, but some set of them, something of a conditioned system. Conversely, a behaviorally similar response is sometimes obtained with different stimuli. Something significant happens within the organism itself, complicating, mediating the initial two-component relationship of the stimulus and the reaction. The behavior of a person does not receive an adequate description in terms of, say, behavior rectum, rat learning laws or the rules for producing reflexes in dogs. So, there is an indisputable and well-known ambiguity between the knowledge of a person and his behavior. In psychology, it is recognized, for example, that a person often looks at one thing, but sees another; thinks of one, experiences another, says the third, does the fourth. Between the external stimulus input and objective behavioral output there is something special working, or actually a psychic, which not only binds them, but organizes them in a special way into a specific reality that deserves and requires a specific study.

The laws of behavior are not hidden in him, and only in external influences, so any scientific models and constructions referred to society and to man, anyway, sooner or later approach the subjective world or the human psyche.

• United States psychologists developed their approach to the understanding of the psyche in the mainstream of the philosophy of dialectical materialism during the Soviet period of United States history. The essence of this understanding of the psyche can be reduced to four words, the formal authorship of which belongs to VI Lenin (1870-1924).

Psyche is the subjective image of the objective world.

But as always in philosophy, behind the meaning of these words-terms there is a multifaceted semantic content, suggesting and requiring a detailed interpretation. We will present it in the form of five interrelated points:

1. The first thing that follows from the above formulation of the psyche is the assertion of its secondary nature, the production of with respect to the primary world. This is a well-known materialist position: matter has always existed, and the psyche is one of the results of its development, movement, organization; one of the properties of ubiquitous matter. Idealists hold the opposite opinion about the primacy of the spirit. We leave this basic question philosophy; for us it is important to emphasize that in the actual, day-to-day functioning of the psyche, a theoretical discussion about its primacy or secondary nature with respect to matter, in fact, has no scientific meaning.

The materialist believes that if there is no reflecting organ - a living, working brain, then there is no subjective image of the world. But this does not mean that there is no image before, before of the world (for example, the image of a dream, until a person realizes it in practice).

The speaking person also comes from the "primary" his subjective thought and translates it into "secondary" objective, linguistic existence.

Then it seems that at first there was an idea, then - matter. However, in such an unsolvable mysterious bunch of fundamental phenomena: "word - thought - force - business"; (for example, according to Goethe), it seems that it is impossible to find a certain chronological root cause. There is no place for the "start and end" relationships. " in the sense of the linear flow of time, there is no unidirectional causal relationship, but a spiral, continuous dependence. In reality, more complex, dialectical relations, interactions, constants of the ideal and material, the world and its image are realized.

To denote, isolate and describe such interrelated processes in psychology, two concepts are used: internalization and exteriorization.

Interiorization is the process of transition, transfer, transformation of something external, material into an internal, secondary plan of mental reflection, into a subjective image.

So "works", for example, the psyche of the reader: the objective letter signs are transformed, lined up in thoughts, internalized by the reader. They are absorbed by a person, become his inner psychological property.

Externalization is the transformation of the subjective, the ideal into an external, material form of existence.

Proceeding from the ideas presented in his psyche or consciousness of thought, the person embodies it in discrete, objective signs: words, painting, music. The ideal, mental materializes and becomes available for transmission and understanding by other people.

In practice, the psyche exists at some intersection, unity of the hypothetical processes of interiorization and exteriorization, in the mutual and objective, subjective, material and ideal interactions, in transformation, alternating "evaporation" one to another.

2. The subjectivity of the psyche, emphasized in the treatment under discussion, also means that the image is not material, in a certain philosophical sense, is ideal , i.e. is present only in consciousness. The world exists objectively, regardless of the reflecting person, but the psyche is not the entire primordial world, but its special image, which is inseparable from the brain and social fabric that produces it. At the same time, this image is not confined entirely to matter, it is not exhausted by the description of the work of the brain processes that provide this reflection.

Example

For a long time became a textbook critic of the views of mechanistic materialism, clearly expressed in the writings of F. Engels (1820-1895). In particular, he wrote that the brain does not distinguish a thought, just as the liver secretes bile. Mental, by definition, does not reduce to the physiological, to the generally known system of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes, but forms a certain special, higher, integrative reality .

As Piaget (1896-1980) noted, the most complete and detailed description of what happens in each neuron of the human brain does not explain, for example, why in subjective thinking of a person there are twice two equals four.

There is an objective language of material brain, metabolic processes, but there is also a subjective, ideal language the psyche. That's why the psyche is some kind of unity, but not the identity (!) Of the material and the ideal, their

attitude. The psychic is not the brain, not the body, not the society and not the objective world , and their special property. The mental image reflects the surrounding world, and not the work, not the activity of the brain for this reflection. Psyche creates a real, qualitatively special subjective world, but this is not an objective world of the functioning of the nervous system. A person sees the object he is considering not inside himself, not where he physiologically "imprinted", i.e. in the occipital region of the cerebral cortex, but in the objective space and in time. With such an interpretation of the subject of psychology, it can not be called, for example, the science of the reflective (or some other) activity of the brain: these phenomena are studied by the physiology of higher nervous activity - the branch of knowledge is scientifically related but not identical to psychology.

Then the question is legitimate: where is "located", the psyche is localized?

Here it is appropriate to bring a figurative expression of one of the classics, the theoretical founders of domestic psychology, LS Vygotsky, who claimed that looking for a psychic under the cranium is equivalent to how a monkey looks for his image in the mirror behind this mirror.

The mental image is produced head, brain, human nervous system, but "is located" not in it. The psychic seems to exist in some multidimensional interaction space of the material and the ideal, the subject and the world. Mentality and psychic activity are the result of a variety of human relations with the environment and with oneself, although in the history of psychology a large number of reductionist approaches are known (from the Latin reductio) , one way or another decreasing mental, reducing it to some more understandable and unambiguous phenomena and mechanisms.

Example

There are numerous variations reductionism - behavioral, physiological, logical, sociological, pedagogical. They can be viewed as differing methodological approaches; certain stages of the process of learning the many facets of the human psyche. At the same time, many well-established reductionist constructs emasculate something important from the psyche; in view of their ineradicability and stressed one-sidedness, they do real harm to the actual understanding of psychological phenomenology proper. 3

3. The term subjective in the original definition of the mental image also means that this image belongs to the subject , the person. Hence, there are two global methodological difficulties. On the one hand, how can we objectively study what is actually subjective? The mental image of each individual person, of course, is subjective, but for the position of the researcher, he objectively exists in the consciousness of his carrier. Here the dialectical category of relations, , without which the understanding of the psyche itself is unjustifiably simplified and reduced, is again manifested (and should be taken into account). On the other hand, the subjective, personal belonging of the psyche means its immediate living and living character. existence in a concrete person, a real place and time. In this sense, every psyche is unique. For psychology there is no doubt that thinking and experiencing is not a brain, not thinking, but a person, a person with the help and through the brain. The world is not perceived by sensory organs (eyes, ears, etc.), but by a real, animate subject using these analyzers as an external tool of one's own psyche.

All mental processes, properties and states exist and function in an integral, personal organization, in subjective integration, therefore, for example, when perceiving the same objective text, people can understand it differently, treat it differently. Objective text is not mechanically reflected and reproduced, not copied, but in its own way is transformed by a person who selectively and selectively refers to the world.

4. With this is connected one more basic position, referred to the dialectical interpretation of the mental image. Subjective - means created by the person, the subject, born in his activity, in a special reflective, creative activity. Psychic reflection by definition is active, not mirrored, not passive.

For the emergence of a subjective sensation, for example, it is not enough only the presence of the influence of the environment or a material stimulus. Must have "counter" movements in the corresponding analyzer, which, as it were, feel the reflected world, are likened to it in motion, by analogy with how the fingers of a person act in the absence of vision when they recognize the shape of the object. Such movements and actions, considerably transformed and complicated, are called "perceptual" and exist in all analyzers, in any perception and mental reflection (see Chapter 12).

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For example, memory is a "film" on which the impact material is automatically recorded, but a special kind of activity, mnemonic work to capture, preserve and reproduce past influences (see Chapter 14). Thinking is a procedurally developed analytic-synthetic activity in the transformation and mediation of sensory experience (see Chapter 15). The very essence of a person's mental development consists in appropriating, assimilating by himself ( own) activity (external and internal) what was produced by previous generations of people (see Chapters 4, 20).

A psyche is not only an image of the world as a "picture", as a result of reflection, but also activity itself, non-stop inner activity for the construction of such an image, therefore the mental image - not a multidimensional "photograph", but a subjective designation of the field, the programs needed, the necessary and possible actions of the person. Psychic is needed to ensure life in a changeable world, for being and acting in this world. That is why mental reflection is reflexive, that is, exists as a process and result of the interaction of the world and the subject.

5. Finally, it is necessary to single out one more aspect of the subjectivity of the psyche, which can be called bias. Since the image is created by the subject, belongs to him, is used by him, this image necessarily carries in itself some projections the subject itself: a variety of psychological manifestations of cash passions, needs, attitudes, experiences, results of the activities performed. The term biased does not mean incorrect & quot ;, garbled; he emphasizes the obligatory presence in the image of the experience of a person, a subjective relationship, a personal meaning. Such bias permeates the whole psyche, is present in any of its components. The mental image is selective, since it was built by someone and for something. The image, as well as the subject, as well as its activity, is directed to something. The abundance and richness of emotions, meanings, other relationships of pronounced bias is a necessary and irremovable attribute of the human psyche.

We give a well-known definition of one of the founders of Soviet psychology AN Leontiev.

Psychology is the science of the generation, functioning and structure of the subjective image of reality in the course of the realization of the individual's objective activity.

As the courses of psychology are studied, this basic formulation will, for the reader, be supplemented, complicated and deciphered by increment of his actual knowledge, for example, about activity and its components, about the individual and his mental appearance, about the structure and functioning of the psyche, about its development, etc.

In addition to the complex parameter of subjectivity, a multidimensional mental image is characterized by a number of other properties, or aspects.

So, one of his dimensions is the axis of time, which guides the person in the non-stop progress of objective time. A developed human psyche is inherent in a special, subjective, or personal, time. A person who does not have a beginning and end physical time makes it discrete, measurable. He can mentally stop him or accelerate & quot ;, dividing by past, present and future. Personality, as it were, lives simultaneously in three time stages, at his own choice, finding himself in the bottomless past, then in the "still" present, then in the infinite future. These components can be subjectively equivalent for a person, they can change their chronological place and personal significance.

Example

They say, for example, that a man is the only animal on Earth who knows he will die. But this does not make his life chaotically consumer or hopelessly sad. Life is presented to the subject as being & quot ;. Thanks to consciousness, a person becomes chronologically free, seizes time, and not just biologically adapts to it.

Another parameter of the human psyche is an objective space in which the image is necessarily built, three-dimensionally oriented. For a person in the world, there are three orthogonal directions: up and down, right and left, forward and backward. Mandatory for the psyche scheme allows us to perform numerous and complex motor manipulations with parts of the body and objects in conditions of a large number of "degrees of freedom" moving objects (NA Bernshtein). It is enough to violate such a spatial orientation in order to understand its importance in the organization and effectiveness of not only practical actions, but also the entire human psyche.

Example

The mental image is voluminous, multidimensional and extended not only in space, but also in time. In the human psyche, space and time exist in subjective unity, in personal integration, which is successfully reflected (expressed, involved), in particular, in the well-known mathematical assumptions and models of the theory of relativity A. Einstein.

So, psyche is a subjective image of the real world - both objective, external, and subjective, internal .

Every individual psyche is subjective, but as an object of scientific investigation, it exists objectively, ie. regardless of the researcher. There is an endless chain of reciprocal links and relationships, reflections and "re-reflections." For example, world - the image of the world (in the subject) - the image of the previous image of the world (from the researcher) - own image of the world (from the researcher), etc. Variants of such reflections and relationships are countless. The objective complexity of psychology lies in the need for a systematic study of the circular phenomenon of reflection of reflections in the establishment of regular interactions and relations between them. Such multidimensionality mental image makes specific demands on its study, on planning and organization of research, on the conceptual apparatus and methodological tools, on the analysis and interpretation of results, on the possibilities for the practical use of the findings.

One of the serious problems of psychology is that once divided into conditional elements the psyche actually ceased to be for science something truly holistic, systematic and alive, animate. Scientific analysis is to some extent artificial, and therefore involves the inevitable loss of any properties from the very beginning (before the analysis) of the whole subject. The synthesis following the analysis compels to give an altered picture of the unification of parts, an abstracted, simplified or reduced model of the original whole.

I recall the analogy used in Leont'ev's lectures. Desiring, for example, to understand the morphological entity cabbage cabbage, we analyze this object, alternately tearing off the whole of its obvious "units": sheet, second, third ... As a result of the completion of such an analysis, the experimenter remains "core" kochana - a stump, which is declared as the essence of the object under study. Of course, like any analogy, this example does not prove the truth, but it helps to think about the ambiguity, the conventionality of questions and the answers of scientific analysis. Something like this inevitably occurs as a result of the implementation of any classically scientific, i.e. narrowly subject, analysis is always an integral reality - objective and subjective.

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