General recommendations on the correction of abilities in the practice of psychological counseling
Carrying out psychological counseling on problems related to the development of the client's abilities, it is necessary to take into account the following knowledge about the abilities that modern science has.
1. Human abilities in their progressive development depend on two main factors: on the presence of certain and, as a rule, congenital mantras in a person, as well as on social factors (the conditions of a person's psychological development) that affect the transformation of the corresponding makings into abilities.
2. Science is still not known for certain what are the makings at the anatomical and physiological level. However, the life and practice of working with people allows, constantly and carefully watching them, to discover inclinations on external, psychological signs. This, in particular, can be done by observing how the child behaves and solves all sorts of problems in early childhood.
3. Especially bright makings of the child are manifested in the early, preschool years of his life, in particular at the age from one year to three or four years. They can be detected by observing what a given child is essentially and in a positive way different from other children.
4 . By the age of about four years almost all the moneys available to the child since birth have somehow manifested themselves. Therefore, taking care of the development of the child's inclinations, about their as soon as possible transformation into abilities, it is necessary to start actively developing abilities at the very first manifestations of makings.
5. Many of the abilities of a person can be developed even in the absence of explicitly expressed makings. However, in this case, much more effort will have to be made to develop abilities, and they probably will not reach a sufficiently high level in their development.
Education and training contribute no less to the development of abilities than the available makings. The makings themselves without education and upbringing never turn into highly developed human abilities.
6. The older the person, the more difficult it is to develop his abilities even if he has explicitly expressed inclinations.
7. The main conditions that ensure the accelerated development of abilities include the following:
• timely and complete identification of the child's inclinations;
• as early as possible the beginning of active development of abilities on their basis;
• the availability of a pre-designed and carefully thought-out program for developing abilities that takes into account the individual characteristics of the child;
• use of modern development methods and teaching aids;
• The presence of an able, psychologically-pedagogically trained teacher, who possesses the technique and methodology of teaching, who has in himself the abilities that he is going to develop in others;
• inclusion of the child in the activity in which these abilities are manifested and simultaneously develop;
• Conducting systematic developmental training sessions with the child;
• monitoring the results of development with the help of psychodiagnostics of emerging abilities with the subsequent correction of the program and the methodology of training aimed at their development.
Practical recommendations that a counselor psychologist offers a client to develop his abilities, scientifically, must be based on the above-stated provisions of the psychological theory of the formation and development of a person's abilities. These provisions in the process of psychological counseling need to be specified in the educational process, taking into account the characteristics of the client, the conditions of his life, the content and means of education and upbringing, surrounding people and real relationships with them.
If, for example, the mother of a three-year-old child is concerned with psychological counseling, concerned about revealing his mate and developing musical abilities, then the counselor-psychologist, based on the above-stated provisions, can build counseling work with the mother and child in the following way.
First, it will be necessary to establish reliably whether the child really has innate inclinations to the development of musical abilities. It is advisable for a psychologist-consultant not to do it himself, but together with a music specialist, since necessary professional, rather profound knowledge is needed here.
Next, it is desirable to determine the overall level of intellectual development of the child, evaluating, in particular, his attention, imagination, memory and speech. At the same time, a specialist musician can determine whether the child has special makings by doing this with the help of appropriate professionally oriented tests.
If the conclusions of both a professional musician and a counselor-psychologist about the child's appropriate makings are positive, then the mother of this child should be encouraged to actively engage in the musical education of the child, encouraging her. that during systematic studies the child will be able to achieve success in music studies.
If the conclusion of one of the named specialists turns out to be positive, and the other - negative (on the child's instincts for music), then the mother can also be advised to give her child, for example, to a music school. But at the same time it is desirable to say that in the development of musical abilities the child may have difficulties in competing with more gifted children.
Finally, with the negative conclusion of both specialists, the counselor psychologist should try to dissuade the mother of the child from trying to make music his future profession (this, of course, does not exclude the possibility of the child receiving a musical education for his or her overall development).
Recommendations for further work with the child in all these cases should be based on the individuality of the child and the conditions of his life.
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