Generalization and interpretation of research results
In psychology, there are two main forms of experimental research - formulating and ascertaining experiments. Their difference lies in the form of representing an independent variable that affects the subjects. True, there are ideas that both ascertaining and forming experiments are sequential stages of psychological research, connected in a single process.
In the psychological and pedagogical studies the dominant role is played by the forming experiment, where all the researcher's forces are directed to control external influences, including those natural variables that make up the so-called human environment & quot ;. The optimal conditions for the forming experiment are the laboratory. Here the researcher can in relatively "sterile" conditions to influence the experimental situation, building any models and artificial psychological constructs. Unfortunately, real life is not very friendly towards "clean" speculation, constantly throwing up some, then other inconvenient circumstances of solving specific problems, which in many cases give rise to difficulties in preserving ideal constructions on real soil.
In developmental psychology the reality itself in the form of "external" life circumstances and internal Personal or social conditions take the place of an incentive. The researcher is only forced to observe how the situation gives rise to orientation, how life tests form behavioral responses, how a person adapts to external conditions, forming and developing his character within the framework of life activity. The content and effectiveness of the ascertaining experiment completely depend on the ability of the researcher to see and logically link the external and internal conditions into a single chain with the material manifestations of the behavior or activity of the subject or group. The success of a psychologist is completely determined by his ability in his mind to construct an integral system of facts of real manifestations of personality and facts - "traces" external and internal conditions of people's life.
During the generalization and interpretation of experimental results, thus, at least three components are transformed into a single psychological information: the "external environment", which stimulates, the individual features of the object of psychological investigation and the experience of the experimenter.
The personality of the experimenter, his life experience plays an important role in interpreting the results of the research, which is, on the one hand, knowledge and skills of using psychological techniques, obtaining reliable information while on the other hand, the ability to construct an objective image of reality. The problem of the experiment, as G. Abramova notes, is connected with the interaction of people, sharpens attention to the content of facts and makes it necessary to understand the context of the life of the researcher turning to these facts. Essential for the objective interpretation of psychological research is the very problem of interaction between the subject and the experimenter. The essence of the problem of interaction is that the subject and the researcher change each other in their joint action (feeling, movement). Therefore, the complexity of analyzing the results of the experimental impact is that the experimenter himself is the most important source of possible changes. The possibility of changes on the part of the subject will in many respects be determined by his attitude to the experimenter and to himself. In this regard, it is desirable to recall that 3. Freud once introduced into psychology two opposing concepts that characterize this situation - transfer, i.e. transfer of emotions of the subject to the psychologist, and countertransfer - transfer of emotions of the psychologist to the subject. E. Fromm pointed out that "the world has a certain meaning for a person, and the coincidence of his own picture of the world with the ideas of the people around him is for him personally the criterion of truth ... he considers his own position logical."
Thus, the interpretation and generalization of the experimental results can be partially or completely profiled. In any case, the psychological interpretation, at least, should reflect in its content the personality of the experimenter, the "external" environment, the interaction of the subject with the experimenter, as well as the individuality of the object of study. These factors influence the content of the interpretation of the experimental results and determine its profiling (Figure 6.2).
Analysis of experimental results can be carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods for obtaining empirical information are classified: a) by the degree of activity of the impact - active and passive; b) the type of impact (registration) - direct impact and instrumental impact, and c) the type of processing and interpretation of data - natural science and hermeneutic methods.
Fig. 6.2. Factors affecting the process of interpreting the results of the experiment
Active methods are methods of influencing an object of research. These include activity (laboratory and natural experiments) and communicative (conversation).
Passive methods are methods for recording the natural process of life of subjects (observation, clinical method, method of analyzing activity products by direct measurement, correlation studies, information collection method, archive method etc).
Empirical information can be obtained from three fundamentally different sources. Data from these sources are referred to as L & quot ;, Q and TV data. L - data (from life record data ) - is the data obtained by recording the actual behavior of a person in everyday life. In the course of the study of the personality, a method is used to study documents, the characteristics of the subjects, where the results of their vital activity are described, as described by experts during certain periods of life. L -data are formed by the method of expert evaluation of the signs of behavior, elements of activity or personality traits according to certain criteria. These data are used as an external criterion for validating the psychological dimension. Expert judgment is related to the need to resolve many problems of validity and reliability of expertise. First, the influence of the personal attitude of experts, i.e. "halo effect", which is overcome by bringing to the examination of several independent experts. Secondly, the reliability of the expert evaluation is increased by a one-stage ranking of a trait in a group of subjects, and then, after a while, another indication, etc. Thirdly, the evaluation of personality traits should be carried out in terms of observed behavior. Fourth, experts should observe the subject for an extended period of time in various situations, etc.
Q -data (from questionnaire data ) are experimental indicators obtained as a result of measuring psychological symptoms using tests, questionnaires, and self-assessment techniques. The weak side of test measurements is the instrumental error, which can be cognitive (lack of self-knowledge) or motivational (disimulation - social desirability of answers, agravation and simulation - emphasizing their defects both consciously and unconsciously).
"Data" (from "objective test data") - data from objective tests obtained as a result of measuring behavior without resorting to self-assessments or expert estimates. The essence of the measurement procedure is the creation of special micro-situations that promote the manifestation of the basic properties of the personality. Objectivity of measurements is achieved by imposing restrictions on the possibility of distortion of test estimates and the application of methods for obtaining information on the reaction of subjects to the experimental situation. The following can be used as limitations: scales of reliability and correction in questionnaires; standardization of the received raw data; masking the true objectives of the study; unexpectedness of statement of tasks; setting uncertainty or fuzziness of test purposes; distraction of subjects; creating a certain emotional situation during testing; the development of emotionally colored test content; fixing automated reactions, "involuntary" indicators, background indicators, etc.
Quantitative or natural scientific methods, in the first place, include statistical analysis of data - the empirical indicators of psychological techniques used in the experiment are analyzed using mathematical statistics. The choice of statistical methods of data processing and analysis is based on the scale in which experimental variables are measured. Quantitative methods of analysis and interpretation of data include: dispersion, correlation, factorial, regression and cluster statistical analysis . Dispersion analysis helps to determine the ratio of the variance of the dependent variable to the variance of the independent variable, i.e. indicates that qualitative variable that causes changes in the quality being investigated. In practice, within the framework of the variance analysis, calculations are most often used with the help of the F-test and the Student's t-test. Correlation Analysis reveals the relationship and direction of changes in the dependent and independent variables. Factor analysis constructs factors, i.e. a set of correlating independent variables that affect the dependent variables. Regression analysis consists in evaluating and modeling the system of connections of several dependent variables into a single psychometric factor that reflects the influence of an independent variable on the psychological object under study. By the intensity of the influence (the strength of the statistical connection) of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the coefficients are placed in front of the metric variables in the regression equation. With the help of the regression model, a forecast is provided for the development of a factor that tends to decrease reliability after a certain period of time. The geometrical interpretation of linear regression is shown in Fig. 6.3.
Cluster analysis allows you to identify the relationship or degree of similarity of behavioral reactions of various objects in the "similarity" their variables (characteristics). In the process of cluster analysis, grouping is carried out according to certain statistical criteria of different similar objects (subjects or groups) into one class (category, group, cluster).
Fig. 6.3. Linear Regression Interpretation
Qualitative methods are a system of descriptive assessments of personality psychology. Specific qualitative methods include: the study of experience, the biographical method, the analysis of results (products), psychoanalysis, physiognomy, graphology, introspection (introspection), etc. A vivid example of a qualitative method is the hermeneutic method. V. Dilthey defined hermeneutics as a method of constructing the models mentality of another person in his subjective reality.
Natural-scientific and qualitative methods have their "resolving power", i.e. the ability to identify the patterns of manifestation and development of the reality under investigation, and are applied at the appropriate level of mental development. Moreover, as noted by VN Druzhinin, the higher this level, the lower "power" natural science methods and above "power quality methods.
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