I determined to get music on your day that I then found out how amazing music was. I sat into a band practice where they played out a piece called 'Flame Boogie'. Ironically, when the strap started playing, I had formed a brief field of a calm sea, with ripples of waves arriving towards me. As the band continued, so that the music received louder, faster and even more intense, I 'experienced' brutal and powerful sea waves crashing down on one another. That is possibly because of the clashing of cymbals that always happen immediately after the band reaches the top of its crescendo. I take advantage of the word 'experienced' because I not only acquired an image from it, but I also became engulfed by thoughts that got so abruptly sprung out from nowhere. One of the most expressive words that I could use for the emotions I had believed from the music and image are elegance, electric power and majesty. I had been so confused by the majesty of the music i cried a few tears and I had slight breathing troubles because my torso had felt restricted. This was brand-new to me. I needed no preceding music training and neither have the music trigger any past memory. I had developed finally recognized why people become music artists. I glanced around after the band finished playing, and realised i was the only one who was afflicted by the music. I used to be somewhat uncomfortable by my effect. Up to now, this is my most vibrant and interesting experience taken to me by music.
There are two positions about how music effects feelings on us. An example may be the cognitivist view which supports music as showing to evoke feelings, the brain acknowledges the emotions in the music, however the listener does not experience any real emotions (Thompson, 2009). The other is the emotivist view which facilitates the thought of feelings being induced by music, and these thoughts are 'believed', which is noticed by physiological arousals (Storr, 1992).
Music presents thoughts through the characteristics of music (such as musical contour, tempo and modality). These characteristics mould the sort of thoughts experienced by the listener (Kivy, 1980, Thompson). One theory advises music as a terminology, where various thoughts are helped bring across by different types of musical intervals. For instance, an augmented fourth expresses distress, while a significant third can communicate delight (Cooke, 1959)/(Thompson, 2009).
Upon hearing the sounds, the mind interprets it as music, and evaluates or appraises the music to make physiological replies (Zajonc, 1980, Thompson). The arousal of the autonomic anxious system is the response associated with an animal to an environmental stimulus. This includes changes in deep breathing rate, heartrate and blood pressure. Since this similar response may also be observed after an exercise, they don't necessarily stand for an mental response. Therefore, cognitive processing is required to link arousal with music, in order to create an mental experience (Mandler, 1984, Thompson). It really is to be mentioned that this viewpoint comes with cognitive reasoning into the emotivist position, but do not support the cognitivist position.
Humans offer an innate arousal response to unexpected event of events. Relating to Mandler, composers have the ability to generate rises in arousal by manipulating the expectancy of the listeners, and this capability differentiates music from other stimuli (Mandler, in Thompson, 2009). The expectancy theory points out that deviation of music from the anticipations of the listener creates stress/arousal, which is, as discussed above, emotion. Music preference relates to the amount of arousal. It is found that a well-balanced/moderate degree of incongruity is most preferred, as high incongruity makes the music confusing and annoying, and no incongruity makes the music predictable and monotonous. In other words, deviation from expectancy is immediately correlated to degree of arousal, and music of average levels of incongruity is considered most pleasurable (Berlyne, in Thompson, 2009). These perceived sound patterns (music characteristics/incongruity) of music are experienced by emotions (Meyer, 1956).
Experiments have proven thoughts are induced by music. Sloboda (1991) conducted a review on music and physical replies. The results show that lots of people experience feelings when they listen to music, and some of the thoughts experienced include shivers, laughter, tears, race center, sweating (Thompson, 2009).
A blind test was conducted by Rickard, Nikki (2004) to investigate the presence of a difference in physiological arousal between more and less psychologically powerful music (EPM). 21 healthy participants (12 guys, 9 females) with varying age groups (mean of 25. 5years, standard deviation of 8. 48) were given music treatments of 3 experimenter-chosen music treatments, and 1 EPM of the individual's choice. The individual's EPM was available to any music genre, but was standardised to a limited duration of 5 to ten minutes. The other 3 set music treatments were: calming music, arousing music and a non-musical film picture that will cause intense emotions. Each individual's gender, personality and degree of musical experience was noted, but was discovered that none of these factors produced any significant contribution that can change the level of physiological arousal (Rickard, 2004).
Tests were done before and after administering each music treatment, by using saliva sampling, questionnaires, event recorder and sensor electrodes attached to your body to evaluate various physiological reactions. This was to check for hormone (cortisol) creation levels, skin temperatures and conductance, heartrate, chills and muscle stress (Rickard, 2004).
The results taken from your skin conductance and number of chills each and every minute displayed a very significant increase in arousal for the EPM. It also demonstrates EPM produces very high levels of physiological arousal, and less EPM produced less arousal. No meaningful conclusions could be found from the other registered data due to the existence of high variability of results (Rickard, 2004).
Studies of Music on Center Rate
Other studies have also found that heart rate, breathing rate, skin area conductance are damaged by musical stimulus. Heart rate boosts when people are exposed to music with fast tempos and tempo, loud size, or any other type of music that stimulates the auditory nerves; and sluggish tempos and rhythm, smooth melodic harmonies, depressing, sedative and enjoyable music will lower heartrate (Bartlett, 1996).
Studies of Music on Pores and skin Conductance
Producing similar results to Rickard's experiment, 4 studies on skin area conductance have produced a good relationship between your change of pores and skin conductivity, and pleasure (preference) of the music (Bartlett, 1996). However, one test found no change in skin area conductivity when the topic was indifferent to the type of musical stimulus administered (Davis, 1934).
Studies of Music on Respiration Rate
One research found a rise in respiration depth/amplitude when there is a greater liking for the music as well as an increase of the music size (Ries, 1969). Another study examined on pre-mature infants showed a rise in respiration rate with stimulative music, and lower with sedative music (Lorch et al, 1994).
The most these studies shows support for the emotivist position. Rickard's test should be showing positive relationships in all tested areas. A more substantial group of topics should be tested on in order to reduce the variability of results.
In relation to Rickard's experiment and my experience, my EPM could be the 'Fire Dance' piece, and i stand to aid the emotivist position as i acquired exhibited high levels of physiological arousals. Although Rickard's test was struggling to conclude the results of respiratory rate, other studies of breathing rate (by Ries and Lorch et al) have shown a positive relationship with stimulative music. Although tears were not one of the arousal tested in Rickard's test, Sloboda's survey talks about that it is also a type of physiological arousal from EPM.
Rickard's 4th treatment of administering the subject's own EPM, the analysis on respiration rate (Ries) and studies on skin conductance all show positive influence of subjective music on the level of physiological arousal. A common exemplory case of the subjectivity of music preference is an event where one person is highly aroused by a piece of music, but another who acquired listened to the same music is unaffected (Addis, 1999). However, your skin conductance test (by Davis, 1934) finished with subjects who got no particular preference or dislike for the music that was played to them (not revitalizing enough), did not produce any significant changes in physiological arousal (related to expectancy theory). This assists explain the reason why i came across myself the only person damaged in the music group room that day.
To increase our knowledge of why if you ask me, the music was able to induce beyond feelings, we can first investigate about how common/rare that kind of experience takes place by conducting studies on the general public. Some interesting review questions would be: 'Have you ever before experience images getting into your brain when you listen to music?', 'Are these images related to your previous experience or do they haven't any relation by any means?', one would think that it might be more common and easier for music to access into our episodic recollection and draw out a earlier experience, but imagine if random images which come solely from the music itself are actually more common? Is one even more common than another?
Another idea is always to conduct an test that has 2 goals. The first is to see any relationship between your magnitude of how psychologically powerful the music is, and images that are taken to them by the music (if any). The second aim is to research if music training actually conforms the types of images 'seen' because of the characteristics of music, which is done by looking at if people that have no musical training would experience images that are not related from what the composer is wanting to create, more regularly than their musically trained counterparts. I would recommend that this experiment to be done on two different groups of individuals, the musically trained and the ones with no musical training.
The test could be done by choosing themes who have the same identity (e. g. introvert or extrovert) so the music performed to them would be emotionally powerful. It has been found that individuals of similar identity like similar music. Subjects chosen also needs to come from a range of age range (e. g. from 20-60 yrs. old) so that any relationship found would not be limited by one kind of generation.
Since we've already chosen the themes relating to a certain figure, the music that people chose must have different complexities, to focus on different specific EPM (between each individual, and also for people that have musical training backdrop) corresponding to Berlyne's inverted U designed preference-complexity graph (Thompson, 2009). In order for us to find out which music performed is the most psychologically powerful to each individual, we can test for the amount of physiological arousal (very much like Rickard's experiment). The greater emotionally powerful the music is, the greater the physiological arousal.
For example, the test is done on topics who are introverts whose favourite genre is classical music. The treatment would be a range of classical music from different composers, and with different complexities. The first treatment given should be the least complex and progresses as the next music is enjoyed. The test conducted must be a blind test, i. e. things do not have prior knowledge to the purpose of the experiment. After showing each music, subjects would have to answer questions such as 'How much do you like the music (selecting from a variety of 0-10)?', 'How performed you feel when you pay attention to the music?' and 'Does any images come to your brain? What images did you observe? '. We can declare the test successful, if the results are in a position to show a style where the more emotionally powerful the music, the higher chances of 'experiencing' images. Or if we discover that music training do limit music artists' ability to see a variety of images (or even emotions) created because of this of certain characteristics of music that had been taught to create a certain picture. This experiment would probably have to be done on a lot of subjects since it isn't common for music to create images in our minds.
In a nutshell, music is interpreted in the brain, and the evaluation and appraisal creates feelings by physiological arousals. Different thoughts are induced by the discernment of differing sound habits. The emotivist position is being recognized by results from the many research as well as my experience. However, my experience went beyond mere emotions into images made by music. Future research could be done to better know how this is induced.
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