How useful are seminal and modern individual theories

Theories on specific differences both have theoretical and pragmatic value in interpreting my personal experiences. This essay shall discuss how the seminal theories of Freud and Rogers enable you to clarify personal life occurrences. Moreover, the power of contemporary individual differences ideas and empirical studies shall subsequently be tackled. These cover individual distinctions in intellectual ability, have an impact on, and sociability.

One of the seminal ideas of personality which account for individual dissimilarities is the psychodynamic theory of Sigmund Freud (Schultz & Schultz 1994); the latter helps me clarify my behaviours during crises and other difficult times. For instance, faced with the loss of life of a loved one, my initial response was denial, in support of down the road have I rationally accepted this stressful life event. The distinctions in people's reactions to such occurrences are explained by their earlier experiences based on Freud's theory. I realize that since folks have differing backgrounds, past experience, and upbringing, they correspondingly have various ways of coping mechanisms and means of channelling their energies (Schultz & Schultz 1994).

Yet another theory which may explain individual differences is Rogers' theory of personal actualisation. He advocated the theory that individuals have varying levels of motivation. Whereas a lot of people seek physical needs, others are in a higher level and follow self-actualisation. Physical needs all drive towards survival, while internal needs want to do with optimising one's capacities; seeking novelty in life; equipping oneself with new competencies; and overall seek out meaning (in Gray 2002). This explains why I had different motivations at various stages of my entire life. Initially, young people seek experience that will give them monetary rewards. Moving on, however, higher level needs of acknowledgement, self-esteem, belongingness, love, and fulfilment face to face, are desired.

These two seminal ideas on personality and specific differences symbolize two opposing anchors on a continuum. Whereas Freud views humans as irrational and influenced by the unconscious, Rogers' theory emphasizes the power of the individual to accomplish something beyond himself through the process of self-actualisation. Both ideas, however, can handle explaining why people have varying motivations and correspondingly change in the way they think, feel and respond. The succeeding paragraphs further explore individual differences ideas and over the dimensions of thinking, feeling, and sociability.

At the level of the individual, difference in intellectual capacity are thought to determine distinctions in job competence (Devine & Phillips, 2001; Kickul & Neuman, 2000). This is especially true for work that involves high mental capacity and a retentive brain; those that are complicated and atypical. Furthermore Le Pine (2003) recommended that higher intellectual potential is also significantly related with the capacity to make decisions also to adapt to change. This justifies why many people are better in a position to adjust to their jobs; have the ability to take on complicated responsibilities; and overall have the ability to progress quicker in their opportunities. I suppose the same theory on dissimilarities in cognitive capability apply to university students as well. The teacher, for instance, delivers the same lecture to all or any students, the same tests, and the same reading material. There are those who find themselves exceptional in the way they absorb the information while there are others who aren't as powered to learn. Apart from attitudes, distinctions in cognitive capability account for the speed and the performance with that they respond to these intellectual stimuli.

Individual differences theories also claim that higher intellectual capacity is also significantly correlated with the capability to work with a team or to spearhead a team effort (Devine & Philips 2001). Le Pine (2003) et al have further found that teams with associates having higher intellectual capacity have also displayed greater overall flexibility and tend to be agile in responding to novel situations. However, based on my personal experience, the potency of a team does not solely rely on the intellectual capability of its participants. The component of behaviour and motivations are equally important in deciding team capability. Often, I have seen 'smart' people are unsuccessful because the key values of collaboration, mutuality, and effect aren't exercised within their teams. In effect, Devine & Philips (2001) remember that while intellectual capacity can be an ingredient of effective team performing, the ability of the team to synergise is also a thought in team effectiveness.

Apart from intellectual or cognitive distinctions, people may also differ as a consequence of differences in the manner they feel. For example, Kling, Ryff, & Love (2003) have found that there are individuals who are definitely more predisposed to doing exercises fortitude; battling amidst hardship; being calm; having high self-regard; and being autonomous. Each one of these traits determine how individuals react to crisis or pressure. Individuals who tend to respond ineffectively with stress are also less content with life generally speaking and will share sadness with the situation (Kling et al 2003). In addition, people who respond negatively in terms of affect also tend to be less content with their jobs, to experience more job-related stress, and be less flexible with change (Burger 1997). Individuals who are incapable of altering emotionally are also more delicate to menace perceptions and have a tendency to be inadequate in team-based contexts (Kickul & Neuman 2000).

These individual variations theories all suggest the value of being psychologically well-adjusted to maintain healthy work and personal romantic relationships. For example, according to my own experience, I am able to lead and influence others even easily might not exactly be the most sensible. I realise that success in authority and dealing with teams does not entail intellectual capacity by itself, but also being in charge of one's emotions. In the past, I did involve some difficulties in working with negative thoughts. When faced with challenges, I tend to clam up rather than welcoming the task that lies ahead. However, with instruction from my parents and friends, I have begun to develop self-confidence and composure. My stints at community work have also helped me adjust well to people of various backgrounds. In total, these experiences have likewise trained me that command and effective emotional working may be learned. Like intellectual skills, delicate skills that contain regarding feeling additionally require practise. These theories also help make clear why some individuals are less able to modify themselves in times of turmoil; partly, these may be attribute to their differences in degrees of neuroticism or the capability for emotional versatility.

There are also ideas which explain why there are variants in people's sociability. One such theory is the personality theory of Myers and Briggs (in Grey 2002), which clarifies the realms within an individual which might influence how he relates to other people. For just one, this theory shows that individuals differ over the continuum of extraversion-introversion. This justifies where people derive their energy from. Whereas extraverted people are lively, sociable, assertive, and talkative, introverted individuals tend to be reserved, calm and averse of public gatherings. This first aspect explains why I have experienced original difficulty in dealing with teams and in leading. I am an introvert when I first came into college; however, I really believe this has evolved as I started to develop new friendships; have shown myself in command work; and have begun to take pleasure from others' company; forming meaningful relationships along the way. I've realised that a lot of people are naturally matched to jobs that require amusing people, being the life of the party, and being in constant chat with them. However, there's also those who are better off being by themselves in a nook, introspecting, and getting energy from within. If they are matched up to jobs that aren't 'suited' with their natural predisposition, they could have a tendency to feel pressured and even underpeform as a result. Kickul & Neuman (2000) have further noted that extraverts also tend to lead project clubs; be collaborative in their methodology; and to work well in that context.

In relation to this, the analysis of Kovach, Surrette, & Whitcomb (1988) found that the best predictor of scholar attendance to standard psychology courses was a compulsive, rule-oriented personality. On the other hand, Judge, Martocchio, and Thorensen (1997) found who possessed high conscientiousness and acquired lower extroversion were also less inclined to miss work. If more empirical research points out such an relationship between these personality characteristics and absenteeism, then there could be a systematic way of profiling prospective employees who are inclined to being absent. These empirical studies again point out to the value of individual differences in describing the motivations of individuals; and the effect of personality in such motivations. I am an especially conscientious person and do not feel comfortable with failing woefully to accomplish tasks promptly and as guaranteed. That is why I have tried my better to continue to keep my word all the time. I also have a tendency to behave in ways that please significant others. These personality traits translate to personal preferences in the way I believe, feel and respond.

Individual differences theories also describe that some individuals are usually more predisposed to being satisfied with their jobs and with life in general, in comparison to others. For example, Weaver (1978) records that there are certain those who are usually more satisfied and encouraged, whatever the task they are doing or the job that they have. This finding seems to be very sensible. At times, I see individuals who have the 'natural knack' for achieving things well, and everything appears to run easily when they are around. You will find, however, individuals who constantly complain and are very pessimistic no subject how smoothly things 're going. This finding has been empirically recognized by studies that suggest the steadiness of job satisfaction across time and circumstances (Judge & Watanabe 1993; Staw & Ross 1985). With regards to this, I have gained insight into why I am in a natural way predisposed to being enthusiastic and positive about all the things happening in my own life. There have been critical incidents in my own life that appeared very negative at first glance, such to be separated from a substantial other, the loss of life of someone you care about, or failing woefully to reach an objective. Even amidst these, my instinct is to seek support from others and try to pick up whatever positive learning I can yield from the experience. Many of my friends have commented on my resilience as a person, and I think I can carefully say that is a trait inherent in me.

The present essay has illustrated the electricity of seminal and modern day theories and studies that handle individual differences. They have helped me gain information on why individuals change from others in conditions with their cognitive ability, affect, and how they connect with others. A lot more than these, they have got helped me introspect about my own personality, predisposition about life, and personal preferences. They are useful insight in identifying when, where, and exactly how I am most effective in relating with other folks. The insights culled from the essay are another step towards self-mastery. Only once an individual understands himself thoroughly will he be able to understand others, manage clubs, and accomplish important jobs. Overall, this will lend greater meaning to task performance and to life generally.

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